2 Organization - a systematic arrangement of people brought together to accomplish some specific purpose
3 3 Common Characteristics of all Organizations 1) have a distinct purpose orgoals2) are composed of people3) have a deliberate structurei.e. creating rules & regulations,control of members
4 Organizational Members fit into two Categories a) operatives - work directly on thejobb) managers - direct the activities ofother people in the organization
5 Effectiveness - "what" we are doing - doing the right task; successfullyreaching your goalsEfficiency - "how" we are doing it- relationship between inputs andoutputs (if there's more output for agiven input, efficiency is increased)** Good management attains goals (effectiveness) as efficiently as possible
6 Four Basic Management Processes Management - process of getting things done, efficiently and effectively, with or through other people** Managers must be able to perform all 4 activities at the same time and realize that each has an effect on the other1) Planning - defining an organization's goals- establishing an overall strategy forachieving those goals- developing a complete ranking ofplans to integrate and coordinateactivities* Setting goals keeps the work to be done in its proper focus and helps organization members keep their attention on what is important.
7 2) Organizing - determining what tasks are to be done- who is to do the tasks- how the tasks are to be grouped- who reports to whom- where decisions are to be made3) Leading - motivating employees- directing the activities of others- selecting the most effectivecommunication channel- resolve conflicts among members
8 4) Controlling - monitoring an organization's performance- comparing performance withpreviously set goals- if necessary, getting theorganization back on track* To ensure that things are going as they should, a manager must monitor the organization's performance.
9 General Management Skills a) Conceptual skills - the mental ability to analyze & diagnose complex situations.b) Interpersonal skills - the ability to work with, understand, mentor, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups.c) Technical skills - the ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertised) Political skills - the ability to enhance one's position, build a power base, and establish the right connections.
10 Specific Management Skills (sets of behaviours) 1) controlling the organization's environment and its resources (i.e. planning & directing meetings and on-the-spot decision-making)2) organizing & coordinating3) handling information (i.e. if a problem arises, use information for identifying problems & making effective decisions)
11 4) providing for growth and development(through continual learning on the job)5) motivating employees and handling conflicts6) strategic problem solving
12 Top - make decisions about the direction of an organization and establish policies that affect all organizational membersMiddle - translate goals set by top management into specific detailsFirst Line - supervisors (direct day-to-day activities of operative employees)Operative - no responsibility or overseeing the work of others
13 Is the manager's job universal? a) Level in the organization - as managers move up, they do more planning and less direct overseeing of others- all do the 4 processes, but the amount of time they give to each activity is NOT necessarily constant and the content of the managerial activities changes with the manager's level
14 b) Profit versus Non-Profit - -manager's job is mostly the same in both - major difference is making a profit is not the primary focus for not-for-profit organizations
15 Management Across National Borders concepts & ideas are transferable to most English-speaking, free-market democracieswill need to modify concepts in other countries
16 Managers: a) make decisions b) are agents of changea) almost everything managers do requires them to make decisionsb) organizations today operate in a world of dynamic change, successful managers acknowledge the rapid changes around them and are flexible in adapting their practices to deal with those changes