2Organization - a systematic arrangement of people brought together to accomplish some specific purpose
33 Common Characteristics of all Organizations 1) have a distinct purpose orgoals2) are composed of people3) have a deliberate structurei.e. creating rules & regulations,control of members
4Organizational Members fit into two Categories a) operatives - work directly on thejobb) managers - direct the activities ofother people in the organization
5Effectiveness - "what" we are doing - doing the right task; successfullyreaching your goalsEfficiency - "how" we are doing it- relationship between inputs andoutputs (if there's more output for agiven input, efficiency is increased)** Good management attains goals (effectiveness) as efficiently as possible
6Four Basic Management Processes Management - process of getting things done, efficiently and effectively, with or through other people** Managers must be able to perform all 4 activities at the same time and realize that each has an effect on the other1) Planning - defining an organization's goals- establishing an overall strategy forachieving those goals- developing a complete ranking ofplans to integrate and coordinateactivities* Setting goals keeps the work to be done in its proper focus and helps organization members keep their attention on what is important.
72) Organizing - determining what tasks are to be done- who is to do the tasks- how the tasks are to be grouped- who reports to whom- where decisions are to be made3) Leading - motivating employees- directing the activities of others- selecting the most effectivecommunication channel- resolve conflicts among members
84) Controlling - monitoring an organization's performance- comparing performance withpreviously set goals- if necessary, getting theorganization back on track* To ensure that things are going as they should, a manager must monitor the organization's performance.
9General Management Skills a) Conceptual skills - the mental ability to analyze & diagnose complex situations.b) Interpersonal skills - the ability to work with, understand, mentor, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups.c) Technical skills - the ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertised) Political skills - the ability to enhance one's position, build a power base, and establish the right connections.
10Specific Management Skills (sets of behaviours) 1) controlling the organization's environment and its resources (i.e. planning & directing meetings and on-the-spot decision-making)2) organizing & coordinating3) handling information (i.e. if a problem arises, use information for identifying problems & making effective decisions)
114) providing for growth and development(through continual learning on the job)5) motivating employees and handling conflicts6) strategic problem solving
12Top - make decisions about the direction of an organization and establish policies that affect all organizational membersMiddle - translate goals set by top management into specific detailsFirst Line - supervisors (direct day-to-day activities of operative employees)Operative - no responsibility or overseeing the work of others
13Is the manager's job universal? a) Level in the organization - as managers move up, they do more planning and less direct overseeing of others- all do the 4 processes, but the amount of time they give to each activity is NOT necessarily constant and the content of the managerial activities changes with the manager's level
14b) Profit versus Non-Profit - -manager's job is mostly the same in both - major difference is making a profit is not the primary focus for not-for-profit organizations
15Management Across National Borders concepts & ideas are transferable to most English-speaking, free-market democracieswill need to modify concepts in other countries
16Managers: a) make decisions b) are agents of changea) almost everything managers do requires them to make decisionsb) organizations today operate in a world of dynamic change, successful managers acknowledge the rapid changes around them and are flexible in adapting their practices to deal with those changes