1 To be alive means to endure suffering. During our lifetime, we inevitably have to endure physical suffering such as pain, sickness, injury, tiredness, old age, and eventually death
2 The origin of suffering is attachment. Because the objects of our attachment are transient, their loss is inevitable, thus suffering will necessarily follow.
3 It is possible to stop suffering. the idea that suffering can be ended by attaining dispassion, resulting in the state of Nirvana
4 There is a path to stopping suffering. a gradual path of self-improvement, which is described in the Eightfold Path. It is the middle way between the two extremes of excessive self-indulgence (hedonism) and excessive self- mortification (asceticism)
1 (Wisdom) Right View Since our view of the world forms our thoughts and our actions, right view yields right thoughts and right actions.
2 (Wisdom) Right Intention 1. the intention of renunciation, which means resistance to the pull of desire. 2. the intention of good will, meaning resistance to feelings of anger and aversion 3. the intention of harmlessness, meaning not to think or act cruelly, violently, or aggressively, and to develop compassion.
3 (Ethical Conduct) Right Speech abstain from 1. false speech, (lying) 2. to abstain from slanderous speech and not to use words maliciously against others 3. to abstain from harsh words that offend or hurt others, (cursing) 4. to abstain from idle chatter that lacks purpose or depth (gossip)
4 (Ethical Conduct) Right Action Abstain from 1. harming sentient beings, especially to abstain from taking life (including suicide) and doing harm intentionally 2. taking what is not given, which includes stealing, robbery, fraud 3. sexual misconduct.
5 (Ethical Conduct) Right Livelihood Abstain from 1. dealing in weapons, 2. dealing in living beings (including raising animals for slaughter as well as slave trade and prostitution), 3. working in meat production and butchery 4. selling intoxicants and poisons, such as alcohol and drugs
6 (Mental Development) Right Effort 1. to prevent the arising unwholesome states not yet arisen 2. to abandon unwholesome states that have already arisen, 3. to arouse wholesome states that have not yet arisen 4. to maintain and perfect wholesome states already arisen.
7 (Mental Development) Right Mindfulness Contemplation of 1. the body 2. feeling (repulsive, attractive, or neutral) 3. the state of mind 4. phenomena.
8 (Mental Development) Right Concentration one-pointedness of mind, meaning a state where all mental faculties are unified and directed onto one particular object developed through meditation.
Nirvana Nirvana is the state free from suffering and individual existence, also known as "Enlightenment". The attainment of nirvana breaks the otherwise endless rebirth cycle of reincarnation, and is the ultimate goal of all Buddhists.
The Middle Path A life lived between the extremes of self-denial and self- indulgence, neither hedonist nor ascetic. Attained through adherence to the eight-fold path.