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Chapter 7: The Food Product Flow. The flow of food describes what happens to food from the time it enters the workplace until it is served to the customers.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7: The Food Product Flow. The flow of food describes what happens to food from the time it enters the workplace until it is served to the customers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7: The Food Product Flow

2 The flow of food describes what happens to food from the time it enters the workplace until it is served to the customers.

3 Food Product Flow It refers to a process of receiving, storing, preparing, cooking, holding, serving, cooling and reheating that the food goes through in a food service facility.

4 Each step in the flow of food is a general food safety procedure that should be followed to help reduce the risk of contamination and mishandling which could consequently lead to foodborne illness outbreaks.

5 Purchasing Effective purchasing paves the way for a successful food service operations. Purchasing is a highly skill-based activity that requires a wide-ranging knowledge of products and market conditions.

6 Purchasing involves obtaining foods in the right quantity, of the best quality, at the right time, in the right place, and for the most economical price.

7 A quality-control program in a foodservice establishment should ensure that only foods which meet written specifications are purchased from reputable vendors.

8 A good purchaser considers the price, supply, and demand, transportation, and storage cost before placing an order.

9 Food can easily be contaminated during the various stages of the food flow, which is why time and correct temperatures need to be monitored closely.

10 The main objectives of an effective purchasing program are to: Buy the product that is best suited for the job; Buy the proper quantity; Pay the right price, and; Deal with only reputable, dependable suppliers.

11 Purchase specifications are important to both the buyer and the management.

12 The following are the guidelines that detail the characteristics of a product: Quality grade Weight Count Contents Packaging

13 Specifications make the task of comparison shopping easier, since the characteristics of a product are expressed in a common language and can be used as a basis for evaluation.

14 Guidelines to Purchasing Food:

15 1.Understand regulations for specific Foods. – Purchase packaged or processed foods only from suppliers who receive their products from licensed, reputable purveyors and manufacturers who adhere to good manufacturing practices.

16 – Fresh produce may be purchased directly from local growers as there is no inspection process for these non-potentially hazardous foods (with the exception of melons and fresh alfalfa sprouts). When making direct purchases, buyers should ensure the packages are clean and will maintain the integrity of the item, as communicated through product specifications.

17 – Meat and eggs may be purchased from local producers, but because these foods are considered potentially hazardous, the products must be inspected for safety. Beef or pork processed in a state-inspected locker may be purchased by a food service operation. Poultry must also be processed in a state-inspected locker or facility. These facilities are required to have HACCP plans in place. State inspection is sufficient if the food is purchased by a food service within the same state.

18 – Only pasteurized dairy products should be purchased for service in facilities serving the elderly. Pasteurized shell or processed eggs should be purchased for menu items not receiving heat treatment or not reaching 63 0 C. Pasteurized apple juice and cider can also be purchased for service to elderly populations.

19 2.Visit approved vendors to ensure that they maintain clean warehouses. 3.Observe delivery vehicles to ensure that they are clean and that they practice temperature control. 4.Use written product specifications to ensure that the vendors know what is to be ordered.

20 Responsibility of a Manager

21 Develop and implement written product specifications to ensure the products purchased consistently meet department expectations. Coordinate delivery times with vendors/suppliers to ensure that deliveries are made at times when they can be stored immediately. Schedule receiving times when product quantity and quality, including product temperatures, can be checked.

22 Review orders and delivery information to ensure orders and product specifications are met. Request a written letter from all vendors indicating that they follow either a HACCP program or good manufacturing practices. Follow up as necessary.

23 Receiving Strict procedures should be followed when foods are received. All food should be checked for proper conditions once they are received by the facility.

24 When a delivery is made, it should be checked for both quality and quantity.

25 Temperature and time are the two most important factors control.

26 The staff of a food service establishment should check for temperatures and conditions of received foods at once, so they may be stored as soon as possible.

27 All refrigerated foods should be put away quickly to prevent time and temperature abuse.

28 Frozen foods should not have large ice crystals, be discolored or dried out.

29 Canned goods should have labels, and no swelling, flawed seams, rust, or dents. Never accept home-canned foods to prevent the risk of botulism.

30 General Principles when Receiving Food

31 1.Receive only one delivery at a time from approved suppliers.

32 2.Check to make sure frozen food is solid and does not show any evidence of thawing and re-freezing.

33 3.Record the date received, and if applicable, an expiration date, on the outside of each package.

34 4.Remove PHF from the temperature danger zone (5 0 C to 60 0 C) and place in storage as quickly as possible.

35 5.Check to ensure that refrigerated foods are received below 5 0 C.

36 6.Accept only pasteurized dairy products.

37 7.Reject PHF that are not at acceptable temperature, and cans with swelled tops or bottoms, leakage, flawed seals, rust, or dents.

38 8.Evaluate the quality products through their odor, look, and texture. Reject unacceptable ones. Products must meet specifications and quality requirements. If any foods are deemed unacceptable, they should be declined and put in a designated area for credit.

39 Receiving Frozen and Refrigerated Foods

40 1.Check the product’s temperature with a calibrated thermometer to assure that cold foods, especially PHF, are below 5 0 C. 2.Reject, with the exemption of fresh shell eggs (70C), all foods that are supposed to be stored below 5 0 C and are delivered above 5 0 C.

41 3.Check at random and record the temperature of three different types of food items immediately for each delivery. Record the date, employee initials, vendor, product name, and temperature of these products in the receiving temperature log.

42 4.Place foods in the proper storage are (cooler or freezer) quickly to avoid potential bacterial growth. Proper cool temperatures are 5 0 C or lower. Proper deep chill storage temperatures are from -3 0 C to 0 0 C or below. Proper freezer temperatures are -17 0 C. Proper dry storage temperatures are between 10 0 C to 21 0 C at 50% to 60% humidity.

43 5.Use the first in first out (FIFO) inventory rotation of products in all storage areas to assure that the oldest products are used first. Products with the earliest use- by or expiration dates should be stored in front of products with later dates.

44 6.Keep products in original packages until use.

45 Receiving Dry Goods

46 1.Check dry goods for leaks, flaws, or broken packages. Dry goods should be dry, and free of mold and insects. If the packages are flawed, they should be rejected and pull in a designated area for credit.

47 2.Inspect cans for leaks, incomplete labels, dents, bulges, and other visible signs of damage. Notify the manager if a damaged can is found.

48 3.Date boxes and cans with their receiving dates. 4.Separate chemicals from foods. 5.Check delivery invoice against the items delivered and the purchase order.

49 6.When damaged items are found, the manager or designee should call the distributor so the product can be picked up and returned and a credit issued. Similar arrangements can also be made with the delivery personnel. Do not accept the delivery.

50 7.Note on the invoice any items that were rejected.

51 Storing All food, chemicals, and supplies should be stored in a manner that ensures quality and maximizes the safety of the food served to the customers.

52 Cold holding is storing food at 5 0 C or below. Refrigeration prevents food from becoming a hazard by slowing the growth of most microbes. Although some organisms, like Listeria monocytogenes, are significantly slowed down, their growth cannot be completely stopped by refrigeration.

53 A walk-in refrigerator is the major storage area in a food service establishment. Its temperature must be sufficient to adequately hold the food temperature at 5 0 C or below. A walk-in refrigerator is usually colder than 5 0 C to compensate the opening and closing of doors and demands of adding additional foods for storage and cooling.

54 Foods need to be stored to prevent contamination. All cooked food and those that will receive no further cooking should be stored above other foods. Foods need to be stored in a manner that allows space for air to circulate around them.

55 All canned foods and dry ingredients should be stored in a designated area. Foods should not be stored in areas such as restrooms, furnace rooms, stairwells, or hallways. They should be kept off the floor and in closed containers.

56 Storage areas should be well ventilated and pest free. Dry storage areas can become a food source for rodents and insects. Keeping containers closed, in sound condition, and off the floor help keep it pest free. Stock rotation is a good management practice.

57 Foods and chemicals need to be stored separately. Chemicals should be stored below and away from foods to prevent chemical contamination.

58 Storage upon receiving:

59 1.Place foods in proper storage area (refrigerator or freezer) quickly to avoid bacterial growth.  5 0 C or lower – refrigerator temperatures.  - 3 0 C to 0 0 C or below – deep chill storage temperatures.  - 17 0 C or below – freezer temperatures.  10 0 C to 21 0 C at 50% to 60% humidity – dry storage temperatures.

60 2.Place foods in appropriate storage area immediately upon receipt in the following order:

61 a)Refrigerated foods – store foods in designated refrigerators. If food products are stored together in a refrigerator, they should be placed on shelves in the following order:  Prepared or ready-to-eat foods  Fish and seafood items  Whole cuts of raw beef  Whole cuts of raw pork  Ground or processed meat  Raw poultry

62 b)Frozen foods c)Dry goods

63 3.Keep all food items on shelves that are at least six inches above the floor to facilitate air circulation and proper cleaning. 4.Store food away from direct sunlight. 5.Place chemicals and supplies in appropriate storage areas, away from food.

64 6.Rotate goods when placing them storage by placing the new items behind the old ones to ensure that the older items are used first (FIFO inventory rotation). 7.Make sure all goods are dated with their receiving and expiration dates.

65 8.Store foods in their original container if the container is clean, dry and intact. If necessary, repackage food in clean, well- labeled, airtight containers. This can also be done after a package has been opened. Food should never be put in chemical containers and chemicals should never be placed in food storage containers.

66 9.Store PHF no longer than seven days at 5 0 C from date of preparation. 10.Store pesticides and chemicals away from food handling and storage area. They must be stored in their original, labeled containers.

67 Storeroom Sanitation:

68 1.Maintain clean and uncluttered storage area. Storage areas should be positioned to prevent contamination from areas where garbage is stored. 2.Dispose items that are beyond their expiration dates.

69 3.Store all items on shelves that are at least six inches above the floor to facilitate air circulation and proper cleaning. 4.Check for signs of rodents and insects. If there are signs of their presence, notify the food service manager.

70 Temperature Control:

71 1.Check the temperature of all refrigerators, freezers and dry storerooms at the beginning of each shift. This includes both internal and external thermometers when appropriate.  Refrigerator temperatures should be between 2 0 C and 5 0 C.  Freezer temperatures should be between -23 0 C and -17 0 C.  Storeroom (dry storage) temperatures should be between 10 0 C and 21 0 C.

72 2.Record temperatures, as well as the employee’s initials, on the appropriate temperature log. 3.Take corrective actions if temperatures are out of the recommended range. 4.Do not overload refrigerated storage areas as this prevents air flow and makes the unit work harder to stay cold.

73 5.Be cautious when cooling hot food in the refrigerator, as this warms the unit and can put other foods into the temperature danger zone. 6.Keep units closed as much as possible to maintain proper temperatures. 7.Defrost units on a regular schedule to aid in proper maintenance and air circulation.

74 Responsibilities of a Food Service Manager:

75 1.Check logs and temperatures of storage rooms, freezers, and refrigerators. 2.Review logs to make sure there are no temperatures deviations. 3.Document all corrective actions taken on the appropriate forms. 4.File logs with HACCP records.

76 Thawing All foods should be thawed using the appropriate practices to ensure food safety. Thawing foods may take several hours or days depending on the size of the food item being thawed. This must be done to reduce the risk of cross- contamination and lessen the time that PHF is in the temperature danger zone (5 0 C to 60 0 C).

77 Steps for Thawing Food:

78 1.Use one of the three acceptable methods for thawing food: a)Thaw food in the refrigerator at 5 0 C or below. Never thaw food at room temperature. b)Thaw food that is needed for immediate service under potable running water at 21 0 C or lower. Prepare the product within hours of thawing. c)Thaw the product in the microwave if it needs to be cooked immediately.

79 2.Use the lowest shelf in the cooler for thawing raw meat to prevent cross- contamination and separate raw products from cooked and ready-to-eat products. 3.Do not freeze thawed food, unless they are cooked or processed.

80 Responsibilities of a Food Service Manager:

81 1.Review procedures to assure they are done correctly. 2.Take corrective actions as necessary. 3.Follow up as necessary.

82 Preparing The preparation and service of foods can involve one or more steps. Regardless of how many steps may be involved in food production and service, foodborne illness prevention requires effective food safety measures to ensure good personal hygiene and avoid cross-contamination and temperature abuse.

83 During preparation, an important technique that can be used to promote safety is “small batch” preparation. Food preparation is usually done at room temperature. This is several degrees into the temperature danger zone. The amount of time in the danger zone should be limited by working with small, manageable amounts of potentially hazardous ingredients.

84 Guidelines in Preparing Safe Food:

85 1.Start with clean, wholesome foods from reputable suppliers. Whenever applicable, buy government-inspected meat, dairy and egg products. 2.Handle foods as little as possible. Use tongs, spatulas, or other utensils instead of hands.

86 3.Use clean, sanitized equipment and work tables. Clean and sanitize cutting surfaces and equipment after handling raw poultry, meat, fish, or eggs and before working to another food. 4.Clean as you go. Do not wait to clean the work place until the end of the workday.

87 5.Wash raw fruits and vegetables thoroughly. 6.When bringing foods out of refrigeration, do not bring out more than what can be processed in an hour. 7.Keep foods covered whenever possible unless in immediate use.

88 8.Do not mix leftover with freshly prepared foods. 9.Chill all ingredients for protein and potato salads before combining.

89 Keeping Food out of the Temperature Danger Zone

90 Anytime the food is in the temperature danger zone, bacterial growth can occur. The danger zone is between the range 5 0 C to 60 0 C.

91 1.Limit the time food is in the temperature danger zone. Remember from receiving to service, food should not be in the zone for more than four hours total.

92 2.Use a food thermometer to take temperatures. Most menu items have specific time and temperature requirements for cooking. Insert the thermometer in different areas of the product, especially in the thickest part. Remember, the temperature of the equipment (stove, oven, steam, table, etc.) is not the best temperature to check.

93 3.Use batch cooking (preparing food in small amounts). a)Thaw only what is needed, and keep the rest refrigerated. b)Work only with an amount that can be prepared in less than four hours. Return the food to the refrigerator if something else needs to be done. c)Cook the food as close to serving time as possible.

94 Food Thermometers Food thermometers should be used frequently to maintain food temperature control. They can measure internal temperatures ranging from -18 0 C to 104 0 C. Food temperatures should be checked with a thermometer regularly.

95 Foods used in outdoors service or in an excessively warm room will require more frequent checking. The food service operator may also want to record the temperature readings in a log. This can be very helpful should food temperature issue arise at a later time.

96 The following are the most commonly used thermometers: 1.Bimetal Instant Read (most common food thermometer) 2.Thermocouple 3.Bimetal-Oven Safe 4.Digital 5.Infrared 6.Oven Thermometer

97 Preparing Cold Food: Temperatures of all cold food should be taken during preparation to ensure the safety of all food served. Food must be prepared using appropriate practices and procedures to ensure safety and sanitation.

98 Employees preparing cold food should: Take Temperatures: 1. Use a calibrated thermometer to take the temperatures of PHF products. 2.Wipe the thermometer stem with alcohol wipes prior to and after taking the temperatures of food; or wash, rinse, and sanitize the stem. 3.Record temperatures in the Service Temperature Record.

99 Prepare Cold Foods: 1.Pre-chill ingredients for food that needs to be served cold (sandwiches and salads) to below 5 0 C before combining them together. 2.Discard thawed PHF that has been above 5 0 C for more than four hours. 3.Discard cold PHF after four hours if they have not been properly held below 5 0 C.

100 Maintain food contact surfaces: 1.When possible, use color-coded cutting boards for all products – red for raw meat, green for vegetables, or fruits, and yellow for raw poultry.

101 Maintain food contact surfaces: 2.Food contact surfaces should be smooth, can be easily cleaned and sanitized, and made of the appropriate material.

102 Maintain food contact surfaces: 3.Clean and sanitize all food contact surfaces prior to and after use. Cleaning and sanitizing steps need to be done separately for effectiveness.

103 Prepare foods: 1.Prepare food at room temperature in two hours or less. The food item should be returned to the refrigerator in cases where it cannot be used at once. The total time of food at room temperature should not exceed four hours.

104 Prepare foods: 2.Prepare raw products away from other products.

105 Prepare foods: 3.Clean and sanitize all surfaces, cutting boards, and utensils that have been used in the preparation of raw meats, poultry, and fish prior to using them for fruits, vegetables, and ready-to-eat food.

106 Cooking All foods will be cooked using appropriate practices and procedures to ensure safety. This includes properly cooking foods with the required internal temperature and taking and recording temperatures.

107 Cooking is the thermal heating of foods at sufficient temperature over time to kill microorganisms in the food. Cooking requirements are based on the biology of pathogens since different species of microorganisms have different susceptibility to heat.

108 To effectively eliminate pathogens, there are a number of factors to consider, such as the of pathogens in the raw product, the initial temperature of the food, and the bulk of the food. Another factor to consider, to kill the pathogenic organisms in food, is that cooking must heat all parts of the food to their required temperatures.

109 Food characteristics also contribute to the lethality of cooking temperatures. Heat penetrates different foods at different rates. While a high fat content reduces the lethality of heat, high humidity in the cooking container or the moisture content of the food aids the effectiveness of heat.

110 Employees involved in the production of food must complete the following steps: Prepare hot foods. 1.Cook hot foods to these minimum end- point temperatures or higher. Avoid overcooking. Use a calibrated thermometer to check the product’s temperature in the thickest part of the item.

111 Food Type: Minimum Internal Temperature at Minimum Time before Serving: Poultry74 0 C for 15 seconds Stuffing, stuffed meat, casseroles, and other dishes combining raw and cooked foods 74 0 C for 15 seconds Potentially hazardous foods cooked in microwaves 74 0 C; let food stand for two minutes after cooking; stir during the cooking process Ground or flaked meat68 0 C for 15 seconds Pork63 0 C for 15 seconds Beef and pork roasts63 0 C for 4 minutes

112 Food Type: Minimum Internal Temperature at Minimum Time before Serving: Beef steaks, veal, and lamb63 0 C for 15 seconds Commercially raised game animals63 0 C for 15 seconds Fish, and foods containing fish63 0 C for 15 seconds Shell eggs (for immediate service) Note: if it is not fully cooked, use pasteurized eggs. 63 0 C for 15 seconds Vegetables (canned, frozen, fresh)57 0 C for 15 seconds (held above 57 0 C) Ready-to-eat commercially processed and packaged foods 57 0 C for 15 seconds (held above 57 0 C)

113 2.Take end-point cooking temperatures. 3.Reduce the holding time of foods before serving by using batch cooling. 4.Allow the cooking equipment to return to their required temperatures between batches. 5.Do not use hot holding equipment to cook or reheat foods.

114 6.Expose food ingredients to room temperature for two hours or less. Food items should be returned to refrigerator if not used at once. The total time that food can be at room temperature shall not exceed four hours. 7.Prepare products that will not be cooked or heated away from other products.

115 Take temperatures. 1.Use a calibrated thermometer to take the temperatures of all PHF products by batch. 2.Wipe the thermometer stem with alcohol wipes prior to and after taking the temperatures of each food, or wash, rinse, and sanitize the stem. Open the sanitizer package with clean hands.

116 3.Take temperatures in the thickest part of a food item (usually the center). Two readings should be taken in different locations to assure thorough cooking on the appropriate end-point temperature. 4.Record the end-point cooking temperature on the cooked food temperature log.

117 Responsibilities of a Food Service Manager:

118 1.Review logs daily to ensure that temperatures and corrective actions are being met and to take corrective action as necessary. 2.Follow up as necessary and file logs with HACCP records.

119 Holding Once a food is heated or cooked, the food must be maintained at a holding temperatures to limit the growth of bacteria. The correct hot holding temperature is 60 0 C.

120 Once food has been reheated, the potential for the growth of pathogenic bacteria is greater than the potential in raw foods. The spoilage organisms that may be present in the raw foods inhibit the growth of pathogenic organisms by competition.

121 Once a food is cooked, these spoilage organisms are reduced. All hot food should be held hot, above 60 0 C, and cold food should be held cold, below 5 0 C.

122 Temperatures of food must be taken routinely to ensure that proper temperatures are maintained through holding to ensure the safety of the food served, especially to children. Any conflict between food quality and food safety must always be decided in favor of food safety. When in doubt about the safety of food, throw it out.

123 Employees involved in the production or service of food must: Hold hot food. 1.Prepare and cook only as much food as is needed i.e., use batch cooking. 2.Use hot-holding equipment that can keep hot food at 60 0 C or higher.

124 3.Follow the manufacturer’s instructions in using hot-holding equipment. (Note: customize your SOP by including instructions. – For example, you may need to indicate that the steam table wells need to be filled with hot water and at what level.)

125 4.Keep hot foods covered to retain heat and to keep contaminants from falling into the food. 5.Measure internal food temperatures at least every two hours using a probe thermometer. Record temperatures in a food temperature log. If temperatures are below 60 0 C, reheat the food at 74 0 C.

126 6.Discard hot food after four hours if they have not been properly held at or above 60 0 C. 7.Do not mix freshly prepared food with food being held for service. 8.Do not add raw food to cooked food. 9.Stir food.

127 Hold cold food. 1.Use cold-holding equipment that can keep cold foods below 5 0 C. 2.Measure internal food temperatures at least every two hours using a probe thermometer. Record temperatures in a food temperature log. If temperatures are above 5 0 C refrigerate the food.

128 3.Protect cold food from contaminants by using covers or food shields. 4.Discard cold PHF after four hours if they have not been properly held below 5 0 C. 5.Place cold food in pans or on plates, never directly on ice. The only exceptions are whole fruits and vegetables that need to be washed after holding.

129 6.Ice used on a display should be self- draining. Wash and sanitize drip pans after every use.

130 Responsibilities of a Food Service Manager:

131 Serving Once food has been prepared for serving, it will no longer undergo any heat treatment. It is therefore important not to recontaminate food by practicing proper serving methods that would assure the consumers of safe, hygienic food.

132 Employees involved in the service of food must observe the following procedures: Cleaning and sanitation. 1.Clean the area on and around the service line using warm, soapy water and clean cloths. Thoroughly rinse it after cleaning. 2.Sanitize the area on and around the service line, using an approved sanitizer.

133 3.Wipe down the area before service begins, and as needed throughout the service. 4.Cloths used for cleaning food spills should not be used for anything else.

134 Service Utensils / Servicewares: 1.Store utensils properly with the handle extended above the container, or on a clean, sanitized food-contact surface. 2.Use serving utensils with long handles to keep hands away from the food item. 3.Clean and sanitize utensils before using them. Use separate utensils for each food item. 4.Handle glassware and dishes properly. 5.Hold flatware and utensils by their handles.

135 Good Personal Hygiene: 1.Wash hands before handling place setting or food. 2.Do not touch cooked or ready-to-eat foods with bare hands. Always use gloves or utensils. 3.Wash hands after each task. For example, if an employee will take out clean dished after loading the dirty ones, a thorough handwashing must be done between the two tasks. Hand dips are not enough.

136 Service: 1.Take temperatures of foods at the beginning of each service period. 2.Record temperatures on the service temperature record. 3.Take temperatures of foods when changing their pans to assure that proper serving temperatures are achieved.

137 Responsibilities of a Food Service Manager:

138 1.Supervise employees to ensure that proper service techniques are being followed. 2.Review logs daily to ensure temperatures and corrective actions are being met. 3.Follow up as necessary. 4.File logs with HACCP records.

139 Service Temperatures: Temperatures of all hot and cold foods are taken during service to ensure foods are maintained at appropriate temperatures and that food is safe to be served.

140 Employees who will be setting up the service carts and serving food must follow the procedures: 1.Use a calibrated thermometer to take temperatures of food products at time of service. 2.Wipe clean thermometer stem with a new alcohol wipe prior to taking the temperature of any food item. 3.Take temperatures of all hot and cold PHF as soon as they are put on the service cart or just before service. The temperature of milk should also be checked before they are taken to rooms.

141 4.Record temperatures on the service temperature log. 5.Check to make sure that all temperatures are within the critical limits: – Hot foods – above 60 0 C – Cold foods – below 5 0 C 6. Take corrective action, if needed. If hot foods are below 60 0 C, they must be reheated to above 74 0 C before putting on the service cart. If cold foods are 5 0 C or above, they must be chilled to below 5 0 C.

142 Responsibilities of a Food Service Supervisor:

143 1.Check the logs on a daily basis to ensure that they are completed and that the temperatures are appropriate. 2.Review the log to see if there were temperature deviations. 3.Check corrective action taken to determine if it was appropriate. 4.Follow up as necessary. 5.File the logs in the HACCP file located in the main office.

144 Cooling Cooling is a process of removing heat from food quickly enough to prevent microbial growth. One method is by placing foods in shallow containers no deeper than two inches and leaving them uncovered until cold, 5 0 C or below.

145 When PHF is cooled for an extended period, the food is subject to the growth of variety of pathogenic microorganisms. Bacteria grow ideally between 21 0 C – 49 0 C (the human body temperature falls in this range.) The longer the time period to be held in this range, the greater risk of microbial growth. Excessive time for cooling PHF has consistently been identified as one of the leading contributing factors to foodborne illnesses.

146 When cooked food will not be served right away (or has leftover and can be saved), it must be cooled as quickly as possible to prevent microbial growth. Temperatures will be taken during the cooling process to make sure that time and temperature standards are met to ascertain the safety of food served to the customers. There are two acceptable methods of cooling foods, employees involved in the cooling process of food must observe the following procedures:

147 One-Stage (Four-Hour) Method 1.Cool hot, cooked food from 57 0 C within four hours using an appropriate procedure. 2.Take the temperature after four hours to make sure that the appropriate temperature was reached. 3.Reheat food to above 74 0 C if it has not cooled to 5 0 C in four hours.

148 Two-Stage Method (FDA Food Code) 1.Using an appropriate procedure, cool hot, cooked food from 57 0 C to 21 0 C or lower within two hours, and then cool down to 5 0 C or lower within an additional four hours, for a total cooling time of six hours. 2.Take temperatures at the two – and six-hour intervals to make sure that the appropriate temperatures were reached.

149 3.Reheat food to above 74 0 C if food has not cooled to 5 0 C in four hours. Note: the reason that the two-stage method allows six-hours to cool is that in the first two hours of cooling, the food is passed through the most dangerous part of the temperature danger zone were the growth of microorganism is ideal.

150 Factors that Affect How Quickly Foods Cool Down: 1.Size of food – the thickness of the food or distance to its center plays the biggest part in how fast a food cools. 2.Density of the food – the denser the food, the slower it will cool. Chili soup will take longer than chicken noodle soup. 3.Container in which a food is stored – stainless steel transfers heat from food faster than plastic. Initially, loosely wrap food items. Shallow pans allow the heat from food to disperse faster than deeper pans. 4.Size of the container.

151 Food may not move through the temperature danger zone fast enough if it is still hot when placed in the refrigerator or freezer or kept in bulk. The hot food may also raise the temperature of the surrounding food items, placing them in the temperature danger zone as well. There are a few methods that can be used alone or in combination to cool foods more quickly.

152 Methods for Cooling Foods: 1.Reduce the quantity of the food being cooled. Cut large food items into smaller pieces or divide large containers of food into smaller containers. 2.Use blast chillers or tumble chillers to cool food before placing it into the refrigerated storage. 3.Use ice baths. Divide cooked food into shallow pans or smaller pots, then place them in ice water and stir food items frequently.

153 4.Add ice or water as an ingredient. This works for foods that contain water as an ingredient, such as soup or stew. The recipe can initially be prepared with less water than is required. Cold water or ice can be added after cooking to cool the product and to provide the remaining water required in the recipe. 5.Use a steam-jacketed kettle as a cooler. Run cold water through the jacket to cool the food in the kettle. 6.Stir foods to cool them faster and more evenly. Ice paddles (Plastic paddles filled with water and frozen) and chill sticks can be used to stir foods through the cooling process. Stirring food with these cold paddles chills food very quickly.

154 Responsibilities of a Food Service Manager:

155 1.Review logs daily to ensure temperatures and corrective actions are being met. 2.Follow up as necessary. 3.File temperature logs with HACCP records.

156 Reheating Reheating is the thermal process to heat foods that have been previously cooked and cooled in a food service establishment. Proper reheating can eliminate a major portion of pathogens as long as the food is heated to 74 0 C within two hours.

157 The more a food is processed, the greater the risks are form contamination caused by personnel, equipment, procedures, and other factors. When food is cooked and cooled, the product goes through the temperature danger zone several times, thereby increasing the risks for microbial growth.

158 Employees reheating food should: 1.Remove leftover food from the freezer/refrigerator. 2.Check the foods’ temperature using a calibrated thermometer to make sure it is lower than 5 0 C.

159 3.Reheat food in an oven, stove, or steamer so that all its parts reach a temperature reading of 74 0 C for 15 seconds. The goal is to remove the food from the temperature danger zone (5 0 C – 60 0 C) as quickly as possible. Record the reheated temperature. Discard food that is still in the temperature danger zone after two hours. 4.Serve the food immediately, or place the food in a steam table or in a pre-heated hot cart, and recheck the temperature to make sure it is at or above 60 0 C.

160 5.Check the temperature of the food before serving if the food has been held. 6.Discard any PHF held in the temperature danger zone (5 0 C-60 0 C) for more than four hours.

161 Responsibilities of a Food Service Supervisor:

162 1.Check the temperature of randomly selected reheated items to be certain that a 74 0 C temperature was achieved and that the product is held at 60 0 C or higher. 2.Review temperature logs to assure proper reheating temperatures are achieved. 3.Follow up as necessary and document corrective actions. 4.File temperature logs wit HACCP records.

163 Transportation of Foods: The popularity of temporary and mobile facilities, such as street fairs, festivals, catering, food sampling, and mobile carts, have increased rapidly during the past decade. The public patronizes these events in increasing numbers. In addition to the opportunity for community involvement, commercial and non-commercial organizations find it profitable to sell food at temporary facilities.

164 All foods transported from central kitchen to satellite locations (temporary and mobile food facilities) should be handled in a matter that ensures the quality and safety of food. Protecting the food and food preparation equipment from contamination is the function of the structure.

165 A temporary food stand should have: 1.An overhead covering. 2.An enclosed area, except for the serving windows and an entry door, and; 3.A source of hot and cold potable running water for handwashing, cleaning and sanitizing.

166 Employees involved in the production and/or transportation of food from a central or regional kitchen to a satellite location must be responsible for both the safety and sanitation of handled food. Steps include: – Preheating of the holding equipment – Using calibrated thermometers to take temperatures of food – Calibrating thermometers weekly or immediately if dropped, and; – Recording temperature and time in temperature log.

167 Responsibilities of Employees at Central or Regional Kitchens:

168 1.Take temperature of food when it leaves the central kitchen. Hot foods should be at or above 60 0 C and cold food should be below 5 0 C. 2.Record temperatures in the temperature log. 3.Take temperature of food when it is returned from a satellite location. 4.Discard cold foods that are above 5 0 C.

169 5.Discard hot foods that are not above 60 0 C. 6.Chill hot foods that are above 60 0 C. The product must be cooled to 21 0 C in two hours from the last 60 0 C reading and to 5 0 C or below in four additional hours. If that is not possible, dispose of food. 7.Record temperature in the temperature log. 8.Record the product name, date, temperature, and time. 9.Place chilled food in freezer.

170 Responsibilities of Employees at Satellite Location:

171 1.Take temperature of food when it arrives at the satellite location and record. 2.Check temperature of food on serving lines every two hours, or more often if temperatures are near the temperature danger zone (5 0 C-60 0 C).

172 Responsibilities of a Food Service Manager:

173 1.Review logs daily to ensure the temperatures and corrective actions are met. 2.Follow up as necessary. 3.File temperature logs in HACCP file.

174 Textbook: Food Safety and Sanitation By: Mary Jean C. Ang And Hannah A. Balanon C & E Publishing, inc., 2010 edition

175 End of Presentation

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