1. Introduction Bill is introduced by a member and assigned to a committee, which is usually refers it to a subcommittee Subcommittee- Studies, hold hearings and makes revisions; if approved, it goes to full committee Committee- Full committee may amend or rewrite the bill, before sending to House/Senate for approval; if approved, the bill is reported to full Senate or House Leadership-Senate leaders of both parties schedule Senate debate on the bill. Rules Committee issues a debate on the house floor and sends the bill to the full house.
3. Floor Action Bill is debated by full House/Senate, amendments are offered, and a vote is taken. If the bill passes in a different version from that passed in the House/Senate it is sent to a conference committee Composed of members of both House and Senate Differences in the bills are solved Results in a compromise bill, and is returned to both House and Senate for a vote
5. Presidential Decision President may sign or veto the bill Congress may override a veto by a two-thirds vote in both house and senate
Because of Limited time and resources, policy makers have to choose which problems to act on Effected by: ◦ Protest Activity ◦ Media Attention ◦ Electoral Benefit- majority support in polls ◦ Historical Achievement
The Court The court will interpret the new policy to determine if it is constitutional or not. ◦ If it is constitutional the policy will be passed to a bureaucracy. ◦ If it is unconstitutional the policy will be rejected and a new policy will have to be created.
Bureaucracy A bureaucracy would be appointed to implement the know policy. ◦ It is also their responsibility to oversee the new policy so that it is followed. ◦ They have the ability to fill in holes in the policy that the Judicial and Legislative branch fail to address.
Political Institutions and Federalism President and Congress have to work together to pass turn a bill into a law. The bill can only become a law through a certain process: ◦ Bill introduction -> Committee action -> Floor action -> Conference action -> Presidential decision
Members of political parties tend to follow their party’s stance on issues Some voters are loyal to the party they support and will cast their vote for candidates based on which political party the candidates are in. Political parties have to compete with each other to gain voter support, so they try to create legislations that please voters.
Lobbyists and Interest Groups Lobbyists represent interests of their organization Lobbyists provide information and financial aid to legislators Lobbyists encourages citizens to pressure legislators on certain issues
Public opinions influence how political leaders make their polities. Political leaders try to take the same stance as the majority of the voters to try and win votes.
Elections Congressmen uses casework and adding pork barrel to legislations to win votes Political leaders take positions on certain issues to try and win votes Political leaders try to win the favor of organizations and individuals for campaign funds.
Policy Networks Presidents try to control bureaucracy by: ◦ Appointing the head of agencies ◦ Issue executive orders to agencies ◦ Changing an agency’s budget Congress try to control bureaucracy by: ◦ Influencing the presidents’ appointments of the head of agencies ◦ Changing an agency’s budget ◦ Holding hearings ◦ Rewriting legislations Bureaucracy, congressional subcommittees, and interest groups from iron triangles ◦ They all influence policy making