3 Originally founded as the Greek colony “Byzantium” c. 670 B.C.E Made capital of Eastern Roman Empire by Constantine c. 306 B.C.ENow known as Istanbul, Turkey. It is at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa.
5 When Emperor Diocletian divided the Roman Empire into Eastern and Western sections, he ruled the East.Imperial administrators relocated from Rome to Constantinople.Preserved Greco-Roman ideals of government and law.
6 Emperor Justinian, ruled 527-565 CE. Determined to revive grandeur of ancient Rome.Under Justinian, the Byzantine Empire reached its height in culture and prosperity.He also pushed his generals to reconquer former territories, moving all the way from Northern Africa to Italy and Southern Spain.
7 Justinian’s CodeEmperor had all the laws of ancient Rome collected, revised, and organized.Known as “Corpus Juris Civilis”.Became basis for Western European law in 1100’s CE.Used today as basis for international law.
8 Constantinople’s strategic location meant that trade between Asia, Europe, and Africa could easily be controlled.Trade Money Power. The bezant circulated from England to China.Eastern Europe maintained “money” economy; Western Europe reverted to “barter” system.Distant from Germanic invasions to the WestEasily defended—on a peninsula with a natural harbor
9 Lasting Contributions to Art & Architecture Hagia Sophia.Noted for it’s use of domes, and later minarets.Use of massive arches provides a huge, domed interior.Mosaics elevated to a new art form.Made of small pieces of tile, glass or enamel, arranged to form a picture.Used to portray emperors, religious scenes and martyrs.
10 Language & Religion Spoke Latin Greek and others considered “barbaric” Rome(Western Empire)Constantinople(Eastern Empire)Spoke LatinGreek and others considered “barbaric”Roman CatholicHeaded by Pope (Bishop of Rome)Spoke GreekLatin, Arabic and other languages used. Not considered “barbaric”.Eastern OrthodoxHeaded by Patriarch (Bishop of Constantinople)
11 The West no longer worships idols, but the East does! The Great Schism: Cultural diffusion led to differences in how Christianity was practiced in various regions. Churches split in 1054 CE.Western Roman EmpireEastern Roman EmpireRoman Catholic ChurchPriests cannot marryWorship of icons allowedilliterate people needed pictures to understand BibleEastern Orthodox ChurchPriests allowed to marryWorship of icons not allowedLiterate population, violation of 10 commandmentsThe Great Irony?The West no longer worships idols, but the East does!
12 Importance of Trade Routes Trades routes connected the Byzantines to the Russians.Cultural diffusion occurred along routes between Black Sea and Baltic Sea.Increased contact brought closer political (military) & cultural ties.
13 Influence #1… Orthodox Christianity Prince Vladimir I of Russia converted.Marries the daughter of the Patriarch of Constantinople.Vladimir forced his people to convert to the faith as well.
14 Influence #2… Cyrillic Alphabet Slavs had no written language; needed one to translate the BibleGreekCyrillic
15 Influence #3… Onion Dome Based on Roman dome, but with Russian adaptations