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Compromise of 1850 Chapter 12 Section 1 Main Ideas: –How did the Compromise of 1850 settle the slavery issue only temporarily? –What were the 3 positions.

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Presentation on theme: "Compromise of 1850 Chapter 12 Section 1 Main Ideas: –How did the Compromise of 1850 settle the slavery issue only temporarily? –What were the 3 positions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Compromise of 1850 Chapter 12 Section 1 Main Ideas: –How did the Compromise of 1850 settle the slavery issue only temporarily? –What were the 3 positions on the extension of slavery? Do Now: –“Debating Popular Sovereignty” Cartoon and questions pg. 29. –Harriet Beecher Stowe Biography pg. 30. Topics: –The Gold Rush –Wilmot Proviso –Election of 1848 –Compromise of 1850 –Fugitive Slave Act –Underground Railroad –Election of 1852 –“Uncle Tom’s Cabin”

2 Gold Rush 1849 – gold discovered Sutter’s Mill California –By San Francisco Attracted large number of people

3 Gold Rush Clipper ships allowed for fast ocean travel to California –Replaced by steamships when rail line was built through Panama

4 Wilmot Proviso Stated no land taken from Mexico could have slavery South opposed –Said Congress could not limit access to federal territory Possible alternatives –Extend Missouri Compromise line –Allow popular sovereignty Sen David Wilmot, PA

5 Election of 1848 Democrats –Lewis Cass (MI) Whigs –General Zachary Taylor –Avoided taking any political positions Free Soil Party –Created as abolitionist party –Took votes from Cass Taylor wins election Lewis CassZachary Taylor

6 Compromise of 1850 Developed by Henry Clay –California is free state –Fugitive Slave Act requiring runaways to be returned –Slave trade abolished in DC –Popular Sovereignty to determine slavery in territories The United States Senate, A.D. 1850 Clay introduces Compromise of 1850

7 Compromise of 1850 Daniel Webster supported Compromise –Union more important than abolition Zachary Taylor dies and is replaced by Millard Fillmore –Fillmore supports compromise Stephen Douglass gets compromise passed as individual bills Did not settle issue of slavery The United States Senate, A.D. 1850 Clay introduces Compromise of 1850

8 Fugitive Slave Act Law said Northerners had to capture and return runaways Personal Liberty Laws –State laws passed that refuse to follow Fugitive Slave law

9 Underground Railroad Organized system of routes and safe-houses to help slaves escape south “Conductors” led groups of slaves to freedom –Harriet Tubman

10 Election of 1852 Democrats united behind Franklin Pierce Whigs split North and South –Led to collapse of Whig party Pierce wins election Winfield Scott Whig Franklin Pierce Democrat

11 Uncle Tom’s Cabin –Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe –Described entire range of slave experience Made slavery “real” for many Northerners Increased view of abolition as moral necessity

12 How Compromise Collapsed Chapter 12 Section 2 Main Ideas: –Identify the major events of the 1850s that increases tensions between the North and the South. –Explain the similarities and differences among the elections of 1848, 1852, and 1856. Do Now: –“The Caning of Charles Sumner” Political cartoon and questions. Topics: –Gadsen Purchase –Ostend Manifesto –Kansas-Nebraska Act –Republican Party –Know-Nothing Party –Bleeding Kansas –Caning of Charles Sumner

13 Gadsen Purchase Land purchased from Mexico to allow expansion of railroad Completed territory of continental US Mexican Cession Annexation of Texas Gadsen Purchase

14 Ostend Manifesto –Attempt to purchase Cuba from Spain –If Spain doesn’t sell, take Cuba by force Plan leaked to press –Associated slavery with expansion and war –President had to back down

15 Kansas-Nebraska Act Growth of railroads spurred settlement of west Douglass wanted lands west of IA and MO organized so railroads would go to Chicago –Created Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory –Douglass propose popular sovereignty in territory to get Southern support

16 Republican Party Created in 1854 to oppose extension of slavery –Called slavery a great moral, social, political evil –Demand repeal of Kansas- Nebraska Act and Fugitive Slave Act Weakened Whig and Democrat parties –Whigs did not recover

17 Know-Nothing Party Created to oppose immigration, Catholic influence, protect slavery and state’s rights –Also known as American Party –Operated in secret Irish and German immigrants stealing elections

18 Bleeding Kansas Pro-slavery and abolitionists rushed to Kansas to win popular sovereignty vote about slavery –Both came armed for fighting –Abolitionists were led by Henry Ward Beecher and John brown

19 Bleeding Kansas Pottawatomie Creek –Abolitionists murdered pro- slavery residents –Led by John Brown The destruction of the city of Lawrence, Kansas, and the massacre of its inhabitants by the Rebel guerrillas, August 21, 1863. Illus. in: Harper's weekly, v. 7, no. 349 (1863 September 5), p. 564. Source: Library of Congress Lawrence, Kansas –pro-slavery mob attacked and burned the town

20 Caning of Charles Sumner Senator Sumner (MA) gave a speech attacking and insulting pro-slavery people and politicians Representative Preston Brooks (SC) went to Senate and beat Sumner with a cane in response Brooks and Sumner became symbols for their sides

21 Nation Comes Apart Chapter 12 Section 3 Main Ideas: –Be able to cite 4 events that occurred between 1856-1861 that increased hostility between North and South. –Explain the importance of the Republican part and the election of 1856. Do Now: –Analyzing Supreme Court Cases Dred Scott v. Sanford 1857 pg. 34. –“John Brown Becomes a Martyr” Political Cartoon and questions pg. 35. Topics: –Election of 1856 –Dred Scott v. Sanford 1856 –Lecompton Constitution 1857 –Lincoln Douglas Debates –Harpers Ferry –Reaction to Harpers Ferry

22 Election of 1856 Democrats –James Buchanan (PA) –Had no connections to Kansas or abolition Republicans –John Fremont (CA) Know Nothing –Millard Fillmore nominated by South –John Fremont nominated by North

23 Election of 1856 Buchanan wins Presidency

24 Dred Scott v Sanford (March 1857) Dred Scott was a slave who was taken into territory where slavery was prohibited, then was taken to Missouri –Scott sued saying by being brought to free territory he was no longer a slave

25 Dred Scott v Sanford (March 1857) Justice Taney ruled: –Scott is a slave therefore not a citizen, so cannot sue –Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional Slaves are property Federal government cannot limit access to property Means slavery cannot be limited in territories by any means Increased tensions between North and South

26 Lecompton Constitution (November 1857) Passed by pro-slavery forces to get slavery into Kansas –Abolitionists boycotted the vote Constitution was rejected when put to a Kansas wide vote Buchanan tried to have Kansas made a slave state anyway Was eventually admitted as free state in 1861

27 Lincoln and Douglas Ran for Illinois Senate in 1858 Stephen Douglas believed free and slave could live in peace Abraham Lincoln argued Union could not continue half free and half slave “ ‘A house divided against itself cannot stand.’ I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved-I do not expect the house to fall-but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other.” – Abraham Lincoln

28 Lincoln Douglas debates Series of debates around Illinois for the Senate Lincoln took hard stance against spread of slavery Douglas tried to find a middle ground –Freeport Doctrine If a territory did not pass laws to protect slavery, then slavery is avoided Caused Douglass to lose support of South Douglas is elected Senator Lincoln becomes a national political figure

29 Harpers Ferry John Brown led raid on armory in Harpers Ferry VA –Wanted to give weapons to slaves to start revolt –US Marines led by Robert E Lee trapped and arrested Brown and followers Brown was hung for treason

30 Reaction to Harpers Ferry North treated Brown like a martyr South was terrified –Proved Republicans wanted to start slave revolts

31 Election of 1860 Chapter 12 Section 4 Main Ideas: –Explain the importance of the election of 1860 –Describe in detail the factors which contributed to Lincoln’s victory in the election. Do Now: –Presidential Election of 1860 map and question pg. 37. –Seceding States map and questions pg. 38. Topics: –Schism in Democratic Party –Constitutional Unionists and Republicans –Abraham Lincoln –Lincoln Elected –Southern States Join South Carolina –Crittenden Compromise –Fort Sumter

32 Schism in Democrat Party Northern Democrats –Support Stephen Douglas (IL) Southern Democrats –Support John C Breckinridge (KY) –Wanted to protect slavery, believed states could secede

33 Constitutional Unionists and Republicans Republicans –Support Abraham Lincoln (IL) –Opposed spread of slavery Constitutional Unionists –Support John Bell (TN) –Mostly Know-Nothings and Whigs –Wanted to avoid secession

34 Abraham Lincoln Symbolized America –Family lived on frontier in poverty –Grew up in log cabin –Achieved success through hard work Became successful attorney –Was not radical on slavery issue

35 Lincoln Elected Election happened on sectional lines –No national political parties Lincoln wins with no support from South South Carolina secedes when Lincoln wins 180 72 39 12 Lincoln Breckinridge Bell Douglas

36 South Carolina Dec 20 1860 Mississippi Jan 9 1861 Florida Jan 10 1861 Alabama Jan 11 1861 Georgia Jan 19 1861 Louisiana Jan 26 1861 Texas Feb 1 1861 Southern States join South Carolina

37 Confederate States of America (CSA) were created –Jefferson Davis selected President –Montgomery Alabama was the Capital CSA believed states voluntarily joined union so could secede Union believed people made union, not States, so secession is illegal President Jefferson Davis, CSA

38 Crittenden Compromise Last ditch attempt to avoid civil war with constitutional amendments –Reinstate Missouri Compromise line –Forbid federal government interference with slavery Lincoln and Republicans reject any plan to allow extension of slavery John Crittenden (KY)

39 Fort Sumter Confederates confiscated all federal property in south Fort Sumter, SC needed supplies –Lincoln decided to resupply the Fort South Carolina attacked the Fort to take by force Beginning of the Civil War


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