1Chapter 6: Motivation Employee Expectations & Needs Motivation Theories of MotivationApplying Theory to Reality: Limiting FactorsBuilding a Positive Work ClimateFocus: The IndividualFocus: The JobFocus: The Supervisor
2MotivationThere is really no valid stereotype of today’s hospitality employee.The industry employs people of all ages & backgrounds.Approximately ½ of the foodservice workforce are employees from 18- to 40-something years old, a group referred to as Generation X (born between the late 1960s & 1980) & Generation Y (born in the 1980s or 1990s).At least 60% of both foodservice & hotel employees are women.
3Your Experience & Technical Skills Employees expect you to:Be qualified to lead.Have technical competence.Act like a boss (make decisions, take stands, stay in charge).Act like a leader.Be fair, treat them equally.Give them information.Give feedback on performance & listen to them.As a new supervisor to observe them- resist change to work customs.Treat the like human beings, know who they are, what they do, how well they do it.
4MotivationMotivation is what makes people tick: the needs, desires, fear, & aspirations within that makes them behave as they do.It is the energizer that makes people take action: the why in human behavior.Motivation comes from withinYou cannot motivate people to do good work, but by getting to know your employees you can activate their own motivations.
5Theories of Motivation Motivation Though Fear: uses coercion, threats, & punishment.Carrot-and-Stick: combines fear with incentives.Economic Person: Frederic Taylor- money is the only thing that people work for.Human Relations Theory: if workers are treated as people they will get the job done.Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: human beings, are wanting animals, & they behave in ways that will satisfy their needs & wants (see next slide).
6Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-actualization: thedesire to fulfill one’sown potentialSelf -FulfillmentEgo needsSocial NeedsSafety NeedsPhysiological Needs
7Theories of Motivation Theory Y (McGregor):Revised the typical view of the way people look at work.It is ‘‘as natural as play or rest’’ when it is satisfying a need.People’s needs, especially their ego & self-actualization needs, can be made to operate on the job in harmony with the needs & goals of the organization.
8Theories of Motivation Herzberg’s Motivation- Hygiene Theory:Inadequacies in the job environment create dissatisfaction (dissatisfiers), or hygiene/maintenance factors.Motivators are factors in the job itself provide motivation & satisfaction (recognition, achievement, the work itself, etc.).The answer to motivating employees, then, lies in the job itself.If it can be enriched to provide opportunity for achievement & growth, it will not only motivate the worker to perform well but will also tap unused potential & use personnel more effectively.
9Theories of Motivation Behavior modification:Newer method for improving performance.Bypasses inner motivation & deals instead with behavior change.Takes off from the behaviorist’s theory that all behavior is a function of its consequences; people behave as they do because of positive or negative consequences to them.If the consequences are positive, they will tend to repeat the behavior; if they are negative, they will tend not to.If you want to improve performance, then, you will give positive reinforcement (attention, praise) whenever people do things right.
10Reinforcement & Expectancy Theory Praises & rewards employees good behavior, undesired behavior is not reinforced.Supervisors can modify behavior by giving appropriate praise & rewards.Positive reinforcement should be given right after the behavior occurs.Negative reinforcement is the withholding of praise & rewards for inferior performance.
11Applying Theory to Reality: Limiting Factors Nature of many jobs: dull, unchallenging, & boring.Company policy, administration, & management philosophy.You must be in harmony with the companies goals, & meet with rules & regulations.Extent of your responsibility, authority, & resources.Kinds of people that work for you (I am only working here until…).Time.Constant pressures.
12Building a Positive Work Climate Morale: a group spirit with respect to getting the job done.Morale is made up of individual attitudes toward the work that pass quickly from one person to another until everyone in the group shares the mood.High morale is the best thing that can happen in a enterprise.To build a positive work climate focus on: the individual, the job & the supervisor.
13Focus: The Individual Get to know your people. Deal with security needs: inform, train, structure the work, support, give positive reinforcement, evaluate, praise, build confidence.Deal with social needs: satisfy the need for acceptance- make people feel comfortable, coach them, encourage them, get them on your side.
14Rewarding Your Employees Give recognition in a positive manner.The entire system of rewards, both monetary & otherwise, must be worked out with care, not only for getting the maximum motivation but also for fairness in the eyes of the employees.The performance required to achieve the reward must be spelled out carefully, & the goal must be within reach of everyone.People must know ahead of time what the rewards are & must perceive them as fair or they will cause more dissatisfaction than motivation.
15Developing Your Employees Develop them through training, feedback, encouragement, support, positive reinforcement, & involving them.Continue to develop yourself.
16Focus: The Job Put the right person in the right job. Provide an attractive, safe, & secure job environment.Put the right person in the right job.Make the job interesting & challenging.Delegate.Rearrange work to add responsibility, challenges, etc.Increased responsibility, participation, & pride of achievement generate high commitment as well as better ways of doing the work.
17Job Loading & Job Enrichment Job Enrichment: shifting the way things are done to provide more responsibility for one’s work & more opportunity for achievement & recognition.Job Loading: Building in job motivators to enrich jobs. This does not mean additional, but similar tasks.