Presentation on theme: "IST_Seminar II CHAPTER 12 Instructional Methods. Objectives: Students will: Explain the role of all teachers in the development of critical thinking skills."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives: Students will: Explain the role of all teachers in the development of critical thinking skills Develop questions appropriate for instruction based on Bloom’s Taxonomy Identify the characteristics and uses of specific types of instructional strategies Analyze a lesson, identifying the teaching strategies and use of questioning, examples, and closure Explain teachers’ primary considerations when deciding which teaching strategies to use
How do teachers teach? A lesson plan is an individual teacher’s strategy for teaching a particular topic. Learning activities are often the heart of lesson plans. Instructional methods- also called instructional strategies or teaching strategies, are the basic techniques used to promote learning. May include discussions, skits, demonstrations, which help determine a specific learning activity
Engaging Learners in Critical Thinking Well-developed thinking skills, rather than the amount of information learned, is essential in dealing with new situations and challenges. Benjamin Bloom developed Bloom’s Taxonomy, a hierarchy of various levels of thought which is used as the basis for understanding and teaching content. Six levels of thinking (graph)
Engaging Learners in Critical Thinking Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy Level 1: KNOWLEDGE: Acquiring and recalling information Sample Associated verbs: define, describe, list, label, match, memorize, name, recognize, tell Sample Question: Who were the main characters in the story? Sample Objectives: student will match at least 20 of 25 words with their correct definition. Level 2: CONPREHENSION: Understanding and making use of the information Sample Associated verbs: describe, discuss, explain, outline, predict, summarize, translate Sample Question: Describe the main characters in the story. Sample Objectives: Student will identify at least four statements that support the author’s point of view. Level 3: APPLICATION: Using information learned in a new situation Sample Associated verbs: apply, build, complete, demonstrate, develop, examine, illustrate, plan, show, solve, use, Sample Question: Who were the main characters in the story? Sample Objectives: student will match at least 20 of 25 words with their correct definition. Level 4: ANALYSIS: Examining the parts of a whole and their relationships Sample Associated verbs: define, describe, list, label, match, memorize, name, recognize, tell Sample Question: Who were the main characters in the story? Sample Objectives: Student will match at least 20 of 25 words with their correct definition.
Engaging Learners in Critical Thinking Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy (cont’d) Level 5: SYNTHESIS: Using parts in a new way to create something Sample Associated verbs: adapt, combine, construct, create, design, develop, imagine, improve, invent, organize, plan, produce Sample Question: How would you adapt the exercise guidelines to fit your personal situation? Sample Objectives: Students will develop a sketch and description of a new product that would be helpful for someone with limited hand strength. Level 6: EVALUATION: Assessing or judging value based on information Sample Associated verbs: assess, choose, criticize, debate, decide, defend, evaluate, judge, prioritize, rank, rate, select Sample Question: What choice would you have made if you were in Churchill’s place, and what is your reasoning? Sample Objectives: Student’s will develop a rating scale to evaluate the posters submitted for the “Stamp Out Litter!” campaign.
Engaging Learners in Critical Thinking Building students’ abilities to use more complex thinking skills is the goal. The ability to think at a higher level comes in later childhood and adolescence. Elementary teachers use objectives at the lower level of the thinking scale. High school teachers should include more objectives and learning activities at the higher level to help critical thinking.
Key Instructional Skills Questioning – Plan questions along with the lesson – Ask questions of varying difficulty – Include open-ended questions Encourage participation by engaging students in group discussions, establishing a respectful environment, and asking questions at the student’s level – Wait time -brief period of silence between asking a question and calling on a student, allowing all to mentally process the question and form responses. Responding to Student’s Answers- be effective and supportive! Say: “Let’s look at this again.” Responding to Student’s Questions- stay on topic, it’s ok to acknowledge that you don’t know, encourage the class to help with the answer, help students understand appropriate questions to ask.
Key Instructional Skills Using Examples (sometimes multiple) – Helps to grasp the concept – Applying to the real world helps – Start simple, then progress to complex – Use a diagram, photo, demonstration, or visual – Make sure the examples are RELEVANT! Pacing – Refers to the rate the teacher moves through the components of a lesson – Too slow: students become too bored – Too fast: can’t keep up, don’t learn important skills Achieving Closure: helps students draw conclusions based on what they have learned – Summarize, connect learning – “What did I learn and what does it mean?”
Basic Teaching Strategies Teacher-centered or learner-centered strategies – Teacher-centered methods: the teacher’s role is to present the information that is to be learned and to direct the learning process of the students. Teacher lectures Students discuss or practice what they’ve learned from listening – Learner-centered methods: teacher acts as a facilitator, or guide, for learning. Students are more actively involved in the discovery of the lesson themselves. (Ex: group projects)
Choosing the Appropriate Teaching Strategy Where do you start in choosing a strategy? – Begin with your learning objectives. Ask yourself: What do I want the students to learn? – Consider: Student characteristics: (match activity with age & developmental level) Subject matter: important to narrowing your choice of activities, (repetition, creativity &/or exploration may be required to understand the content) Teaching situation: Make sure you have the time, materials, equipment, or space you need to carry out your choice of strategy
The more time you spend with a group of students, the better attuned you are at pinpointing their needs and preferences. Choosing the Appropriate Teaching Strategy
In the meantime, and as you gain experience, use a checklist to help you make wise choices: Check list for Choosing a Teaching Strategy Meets objectives Age and developmentally appropriate Meets varying learning styles Includes all students in learning process Will engage students’ interest Respects cultural differences Appropriate for subject matter and topic Promotes thinking skills Allows appropriate reinforcement of content Can be completed with available time Will work in the available space Uses available resources/materials Matches teacher’s experience and skills