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Definition of Conflict

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1 Definition of Conflict
Ozcelik/Sewall Definition of Conflict Conflict is a social process when two or more parties perceive a divergence of interest or incompatible goals or values Subjective side: processes of perception, cognition, communication, emotion Behavioral interaction between the parties Multiple levels of analysis (interpersonal, group, intergroup, organizational, international, and global) February 4,2002

2 Ozcelik/Sewall Conflict: Requires at least two parties (individual, group, organization, states,etc.=Actors) Sources-Economic c.-scarce resources (territory)-real conflict of interest (position and interest) Value c.-incompatible preferences and principles-perception (needs) Power c.- each party wants to maximize its influence over the other. February 4,2002

3 Conflict Rothman, Jay, 1997, p.17 Identity-based Resource-based
Ozcelik/Sewall Conflict Rothman, Jay, 1997, p.17 Identity-based Needs and values (frustration over such needs as identity, security& recognition Intangible (psychology, history, culture, worldview) Interactive (dialogue about needs) Resource-based Resources (competition over material and territorial interests) Tangible (socioeconomic factors, resource scarcity Transactive (interest-based bargaining) February 4,2002

4 A Conflict Structure involves:
Ozcelik/Sewall A Conflict Structure involves: Situation: actual or perceived underlying incompatible goals(conflict of interest or relationship) Attitude: parties’ perceptions and misperceptions of each other- include feeling (emotive), belief (cognitive), and will (conative) Behavior: cooperation or coercion. Violent conflict behaviors are threats, coercion, destructive attacks. Conflict is a dynamics process where S, A, and B are constantly changing and influencing each other February 4,2002

5 Interpersonal conflict
Ozcelik/Sewall Interpersonal conflict Destructive or constructive Communication Interdepence Self-esteem Power dynamics Cultural dynamics (high and low-context cultures) Gender identity Religion Emotions Preferences and orientations February 4,2002

6 Types of goals in Conflict
Ozcelik/Sewall Types of goals in Conflict Content-what do we want? Relational- who are we to each other? Identity or Face-saving-who am I in this interaction? Process-what communication process will be used? February 4,2002

7 International conflict
Ozcelik/Sewall International conflict Interstate c. Intrastate c.- revolution/ideology c.: to change the nature of the state (system- capitalist/socialist, government-dictatorship/democracy, religious-secular/islamic) identity/secession c:the integrity of the state (the relative status of ethnic groups) Factional c: the control of the state- the competing interests or power struggles of factions (autonomy, secession, control) February 4,2002

8 Violence Direct violence: children are murdered
Ozcelik/Sewall Violence Direct violence: children are murdered Structural violence: children die through poverty Cultural violence: whatever blinds us to this or seek to justify it Armed conflict- both parties use of force Violent conflict- physical violence against unarmed civilians February 4,2002

9 C-Series C. Prevention: Crisis management
Ozcelik/Sewall C-Series C. Prevention: Crisis management C. Settlement: an agreement in an armed c. To put an end violent stage. C. Management (regulation): limitation, mitigation, containment C. Resolution: deep-rooted sources of conflict are addressed and resolved. C. Transformation: To transform unjust relationships, parties, and situation. February 4,2002

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