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AP World History Notes Chapter 9

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1 AP World History Notes Chapter 9
China and the World AP World History Notes Chapter 9

2 China after the Han Dynasty
Political disunity following the collapse of the Han dynasty During this time, many Chinese people began to migrate south Partly a natural migration Partly due to the nomads from the north creeping in Result = by 1000 CE, about 60% of China’s population was in southern China Result = the Chinese destroyed forests and land in southern China as they brought their intense agriculture with them

3 The Reunification of China
China regained its unity under the Sui dynasty ( ) Reunified China with the construction of the Grand Canal Short-lived dynasty Ruthless emperors = unpopular Failed attempt to conquer Korea  wasted resources and upset people Sui dynasty = overthrown

4 Sui Dynasty Wendi Nobleman
Victory over Chen united traditional Chinese Core. Built grain bins for storing grain. Lowered taxes and built massive canals. Leads nomadic leaders to control northern China 589, defeat of Chen kingdom Yangdi Emperor (killed his dad and gets killed by his minister) Established milder legal code Upgraded Confucian education and restored examination system. Extravagant living and building led to social upheaval. (plus making worn out soldiers go get Korea) Sets up new capital at Loyang

5 The Reunification of China
Sui dynasty was followed by: the Tang dynasty ( ) and the Song dynasty ( ) Both used the same state structure: Centralized government 6 major departments = personnel, finance, rites, army, justice, and public works Censorate = agency that watched over the rest of government to make sure everything ran smoothly Government officials chosen based on a revived Confucian-based examination system

6

7 Tang Dynasty Dynastic system saved by Li Yuan (Duke of Tang)
Son, Tang Taizong, is given throne next Extended boarder to Afghanistan. Continued the re-building of the Great Wall. Moved capital to Changan Re-building of the bureaucracy. Aristocracy weakened Confucian ideology revised Scholar-gentry elite reestablished Bureaucracy Bureau of Censors Examination system bigger than ever before Ministry of Rites jinshi

8 Confucianism and Buddhism
Confucianism and Buddhism potential rivals Buddhism had been central Mahayana (Pure Land) Buddhism popular in era of turmoil Chan (Zen) Buddhism common among elite Early Tang support Buddhism Empress Wu ( ) Endows monasteries Tried to make Buddhism the state religion 50,000 monasteries by c. 850

9 The Anti-Buddhist Backlash
Confucians in administration Support taxation of Buddhist monasteries Persecution under Emperor Wuzong ( ) Monasteries destroyed Lands redistributed Confucian emerges the central ideology

10 Tang Decline 755 CE, Revolts
Ineffective leaders (Empress Wei) (Xuanzong “hearts” Yang Guifei) Frontier boarders raided Corrupt government officials 907 CE, last Tang emperor resigns

11 Song Dynasty Song founded in 960 C.E (Zhao Kuangyin aka Honest Abe who “collected books rather than booty”) Zhao is renamed Taizu Song unable to defeat northern nomads. Song paid tribute to Liao Founded by Khitan people/Manchuria

12 Song Politics Settling for Partial Restoration
Scholar-gentry patronized Given power over military The Revival of Confucian Thought Libraries established Old texts recovered Neo-confucians Stress on personal morality Zhu Xi (apply philosophy to every day life) Importance of philosophy in everyday life Hostility to foreign ideas Gender, class, age distinctions reinforced

13 Tang and Song Prosperity: The Basis of a Golden Age
Canal system Built to accommodate population shift Yangdi's Grand Canal (links China across the Noodle LIne Links North to South Silk routes reopened Greater contact with Buddhist, Islamic regions Sea trade Developed by late Tang, Song Junks (with gun powder rockets!) Commerce expands Credit Deposit shops (banks) Flying money Urban growth Changan Tang capital/2 million Hangzhou Song capital Marco Polo’s favorite

14 The Grand Canal

15 Tang and Song Prosperity: The Basis of a Golden Age
Expanding Agrarian Production and Life in the Country New areas cultivated Canals help transport produce Aristocratic estates Divided among peasants Scholar-gentry replace aristocracy Family and Society in the Tang-Song Era Great continuity Marriage brokers Elite women have broader opportunities Empresses Wu, Wei Divorce widely available

16 The “Economic Revolution” of China
Advancements in agriculture Most important = adoption of a fast-ripening and drought-resistant strain of rice from Vietnam Result = rapid population growth Jumped to 120 million people by 1200 CE

17 Chinese Industrial Production
Iron industry boomed Used to make: suits of armor, arrowheads, coins, tools, bells in Buddhist monasteries, etc.

18 The Urbanization of China
Many people began to move to cities Dozens of Chinese cities numbered over 100,000 people Capital of Song dynasty = Hangzhou Had over 1 million people Modern picture of Hangzhou

19 The “Golden Age” of China
Focus on arts and literature Excellence in poetry, landscape painting, and ceramics Neo-Confucianism = revival of Confucianism mixed with Buddhist and Daoist elements

20 Glorious Age Conclusion
Invention and Artistic Creativity Influence over neighbors Economy stimulated by advances in farming, finance bridges Explosives and projectiles (Used by Song for armaments) Chairs used in household Tea as a common drink Compasses, abacus Bi Sheng Printing with moveable type Scholarly Refinement and Artistic Accomplishment Scholar-gentry key Change from Buddhist artists Secular scenes more common Li Bo Poet Nature a common theme in poetry, art

21 Chinese Innovations Woodblock and moveable type  led to the first printed books Larger ships and magnetic compass Gunpowder

22 Women in the Song Dynasty
Chinese women HAD been enjoying a looser patriarchal system With Song dynasty = major revival of Confucianism = belief in female subordination Patriarchal restrictions began to tighten again

23 The Neo-Confucian Assertion of Male Dominance
Neo-Confucians reduce role of women Confinement Men allowed great freedom Men favored in inheritance, divorce Women not educated Foot binding

24 Foot Binding Began between the ages of 4 and 7
Involved the tight wrapping of young girls’ feet Broke the bones and caused intense pain Goal = to make the feet small and delicate Sign of female beauty Kept the women at home Began with just elite women, but soon became a common practice with all classes

25 Foot Binding

26 Foot Binding

27 Foot Binding

28 Women and the Economy: Textiles
China’s economy became more commercial More factories and workshops  less home-made products Workshops and factories run by men Factories now used to produce silk and other textiles Takes this job away from women

29 Women and the Economy: Other Jobs
What did women do instead? Operated restaurants Sold fish and vegetables Maids, cooks, dressmakers Concubines Courtesans Entertainers Prostitutes

30 Positive Trends for Women
Property rights expanded Controlled own dowries Inherited family property Promotion of further education for women To raise sons effectively To increase family’s fortune

31 China & the Northern Nomads
Most enduring and intense interaction Nomads = pastoral and semi-agricultural people in the northern steppe Relationship began as a result of TRADE Began a centuries-long relationship filled with trading, raiding, and extortion

32 The Nomads’ Point of View
Nomads thought the Chinese were a threat Built the Great Wall to keep them out Directed their military towards them occasionally Made trading more difficult than it had to be In reality: the Chinese needed the nomads Needed horses for their military Needed other goods like: furs, hides, amber Many important parts of the Silk Road network were in nomad territories

33 China’s Point of View Nomads = barbaric and primitive
Chinese = sophisticated and civilized Chinese = felt superior to ALL non-Chinese cultures/people, not just the nomads This resulted in the Chinese tribute system versus

34 The Tribute System in Theory
Acknowledgement of Chinese superiority by foreigners and non-Chinese authorities Foreigners would go to the Chinese court and: Perform a series of ritual bowings and gestures Present their tribute = valuable goods/products from their homeland In return, the Chinese emperor would: Grant them permission to stay & trade in China Provide them with gifts or “bestowals”

35 The Tribute System in Reality
China = dealing with large nomadic empires (like the Xiongnu) that had powerful militaries Reality = tribute system in reverse China = gave the nomads “gifts” of wine, silk, grains, and other goods In return = the nomads promised to not invade or attack China

36 Ming China (1368-1644) Rebuilt strong central government
Reinstated civil service examinations and made them even harder Increase in food and trade production Increase in population

37 Ming China Capital = Beijing
Emperor Yongle built the Forbidden City = magnificent imperial residence Also built the Temple of Heaven = where rulers performed Confucian-based rituals to ensure the well-being of Chinese society

38 Ming China Focus = repairing the damage caused by Mongol rule
Restored millions of acres of cultivation Rebuilt: canals, reservoirs, and irrigation systems Planted millions of trees to reforest China

39 Chinese Exploration China undertook large and impressive maritime expeditions Largest = launched in 1405 and led by Zheng He 300 ships; 27,000 crew members; variety of different people on board He made 7 voyages between 1405 and 1433

40 Voyages of Zheng He

41 Chinese Exploration Goals of Chinese exploration:
Enroll distant peoples and states in the Chinese tribute system Bring back exotic goods from foreign lands (ex: zebras, giraffes, etc.) Establish Chinese power and prestige in the Indian Ocean Exert Chinese control over foreign trade

42 Chinese Exploration Abrupt and deliberate end to Chinese exploration in 1433 WHY? Death of Emperor Yongle = chief supporter Many officials saw expeditions as a waste of money and resources Believed focus should be on real threat = nomads to the north

43 The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Japan, Korea, and Vietnam
AP World History The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Japan, Korea, and Vietnam

44 China and Korea Initial outlet for Chinese influence = temporary conquest of Korea by China during Han dynasty Korean resistance urged China to withdraw its military presence in 688 Tribute system & trading relationship still existed Chinese cultural elements adopted by the Koreans: Buddhism Confucianism Government set-up Chinese models of family life and female behavior

45 Tang Alliances and the Conquest of Korea
109 B.C.E., Choson kingdom conquered by Han Silla, Paekche Koguryo people Resist Chinese dominance Sinification increases after fall of the Han Buddhism an important vehicle Sinification: The Tributary Link Silla, Koryo dynasties ( ) Peak of Chinese influence Silla politically independent

46 Koryo Collapse, Dynastic Renewal
Revolts Caused by labor, tax burdens Weaken Silla, Koryo governments 1231, Mongol invasion Followed by turmoil 1392, Yi dynasty founded Lasts until 1910

47 Impact on Korean Women No longer allowed to live and raise her children in her parents’ home with her husband Practices that faded away: Husband buried with the wife’s family Remarriage of widowed or divorced women Female inheritance of property Plural marriages for men

48 China and Vietnam Vietnam was part of the Chinese state for over 1000 years (111 BCE to 939 CE) Chinese cultural elements adopted by the Vietnamese: Confucianism Daoism Buddhism Administrative techniques Examination system Artistic and literary styles

49 China and Vietnam Chinese elements forced upon the Vietnamese:
Confucian-based schools Chinese = official language for businesses Chinese clothing and hairstyles = mandatory Chinese-style irrigated agriculture Result = Vietnamese resistance and rebellion Several failed rebellions  Ex: the Trung sisters Successful rebellion = 10th century when Tang dynasty weakened in China

50 China and Vietnam Uniquely Vietnamese cultural elements that remained in Vietnam despite Chinese influences: Distinct Vietnamese language Cockfighting Chewing betel nuts Greater role for women in social and economic life

51 China and Japan Unlike Korea and Vietnam – Japan is physically separated from China Result = Japan was never successfully invaded or conquered by China Result = any Chinese cultural elements adopted by Japan = 100% voluntary Result = Japan will retain a very unique & distinct culture

52 Japan Early Japan = organized around family-based clans that controlled certain regions Each family descended from a different common ancestor Each clan worshipped this ancestor as a special kami = spirit Shinto = belief that kamis live within all people, animals, and nature

53 Japan As these clans began to unify into a Japanese “state”, Japan began to model itself after China in some ways Elements adopted from China: Buddhism and Confucianism Chinese-style court rituals and court rankings Chinese calendar Chinese-based taxation systems Chinese-style law codes and government departments Chinese-style writing system

54 Prince Shotoku (574-622) Pro-Buddhist / Defeats Anti-Buddha forces
The 17 Article Constitution Rights of Ruler / Responsibilities of Ruled Bureaucracy modeled upon China Promoted Buddhism Established relations with Sui Letter "from the Emperor of the Sunrise country to the Emperor of the Sunset country” “All is Illusion, The Buddha Alone is Real”

55 The Taika Reforms - (645) Complete Imperial and Bureaucratic System - Tang model Absolutist Rulers - Sons of Heaven Outlaw Private Ownership of Land Equal-Field System / Income Taxation Chinese Language reinforced - dynastic histories, literature Buddhist Construction Projects

56 Nara Period (710-794) Modeled on Chang'an - No Walls!!
7 missions to China - Skilled Craftsmen Small Pox / 30% of population A Buddhist Monastery in every Province Poetry Japanese Language with Chinese characters for sound

57 Japan Heian Period = 800 – 1200 Capital of Japan = Heian (later renamed Kyoto) Focus of this period = pursuit of beauty Japanese influenced by Chinese art, literature, calligraphy, poetry, etc. Spent hours each day writing letters and poems Rise of literature  ex: The Tale of Genji

58 Heian Period Capital to Heian (Kyoto) (The Buddhists are NOT invited)
Abandons Taika reforms Aristocracy restored to power During the Heian the Fujiwara clan married their daughters to the heirs to the throne, thus ensuring their authority. The pleasure loving emperors lost control of policy to aristocratic court families. This loss of control led to Japanese Feudalism.

59 Court Life in the Heian Era
This perfectly still Spring Day bathed in soft light From the spread out sky, Why do cherry blossoms so restlessly scatter down? Although I am sure That he will not be coming In the evening light When the locusts shrilly call I go to the door and wait Court culture Codes of behavior Aesthetic enjoyment Poetry Women and men take part Lady Murasaki, Tale of Genji

60 Heian

61 Japan In their “search for beauty” during the Heian period, governmental responsibilities were neglected Centralized government broke down Emperor lost power Gave way to “feudal” Japan

62 The Decline of Imperial Power
Fujiwara family Dominate government Cooperate with Buddhists Elite cult Regional lords (bushi) Fortress bases Semi-independent Samurai Warrior class emerges Martial arts esteemed Special code Family honor Death rather than defeat Seppuku or hari-kiri Peasants lose status, freedom Salvationist Buddhism

63 The Era of Warrior Dominance
By the 11th and 12th centuries Family rivalries dominate Taira, Minamoto The Declining Influence of China 838, Japanese embassies to China stopped Gempei Wars 1185, Minamoto victorious Bakufu, military government Kamakura, capital

64 The Breakdown of Bakufu Dominance and the Age of the Warlords
Yoritomo Minamoto leader Assassinates relatives Death brings succession struggle Hojo family Minamoto, emperor figureheads Ashikaga Takuaji Minamoto 14th century, overthrows Kamakura rule Ashikaga Shogunate established Emperor driven from Kyoto Struggle weakens all authority

65 Japanese Feudalism: 1467-1477, civil war among Ashikaga factions
The Age of Warlords divided Japan into 300 small states each ruled by a different Warlord. The Emperor lost more control to the Shogons.

66 Feudal Japan Shoguns = generals and powerful lords Mikado = emperor
Most political and military power Mikado = emperor Very little power; figurehead Always fighting each other Daimyos = local lords Owned estates Had private armies Code of Bushido = samurai code of honor Seppuku = ritualistic suicide  belly-slashing Samurai = warriors Loose-fitting armor Fought with swords AND on horseback with bows & arrows Peasants  worked on the land; paid heavy taxes; received protection in return

67 Japanese Samurai

68 Toward Barbarism? Military Division and Social Change Warfare becomes more brutal Daimyo support commerce Artistic Solace for a Troubled Age Zen Buddhism Important among elite Point of contact with China

69 Japanese Women Escaped the more oppressive features of Chinese Confucian culture; could: Inherit property Live apart from their husbands Get divorced easily Remarry if widowed or divorced

70 Major Chinese Influences on Eurasia
Two major Chinese innovations that would impact the world for centuries to come: Printing and books Gunpowder

71 Printing and Books Effects of printing and books in the future:
Mass literacy Increased education and scholarship Spread of religion Exchange of information

72 Gunpowder Effects of gunpowder in the future
Cannons and firearms “Gunpowder Revolution” = when “gunpowder” empires started and grew as a result of their use of firearms, cannons, and other explosives


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