Presentation on theme: "The Learning Cycle as a Model for Science Teaching Reading Assignment Chapter 5 in Teaching Science to Every Child: Using Culture as a Starting Point."— Presentation transcript:
The Learning Cycle as a Model for Science Teaching Reading Assignment Chapter 5 in Teaching Science to Every Child: Using Culture as a Starting Point
Deductive and Inductive Approaches Inductive Approach – Learning begins with the parts and ultimately leads to the whole. Benefits of the Inductive Approach for All Learners Involving all students in a shared experience at the outset, which provides an excellent scaffold. (Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development and Dewey’s notion of educational experience). Reading comprehension and vocabulary development are increased.
Learning Cycle Teaching Model is built upon a synthesis of learning theories beginning with Robert Karplus. is a way of planning and teaching that is consistent with how children construct their understanding
The 5-E Learning Cycle – An Overview Engage – Teachers engage students in the lesson, pique curiosity and provide focus, probe students’ conceptions and misconceptions, and help students make connections to prior knowledge. Explore – Students plan and conduct investigations to gather evidence to answer the questions. Explanation – Teachers formally present labels, concepts, and principles. They guide students to use the new knowledge to construct scientific explanations and answer initiating questions. Elaboration, Expansion, Extension – Teachers aid students in applying new understandings to new problems. Evaluation – teachers and students use formal and informal means to assess new knowledge, understandings, appreciations, and abilities.
The First “E” - Engagement Promotes interest and motivation Does not overpower the lesson Strategic questions can engage learners and drive the inquiry Preconceptions and misconceptions may be revealed No single technique – may be a quick review of previous activities or an initial opportunity to for the students to make connections between their backgrounds and the science concept.
The Second “E” - Exploration Purpose – provide students with a firsthand experience with the science concept. Need a balance between being too open ended, as with discovery learning, and being a “cookbook” type activity. One way to provide this balance is to give students a record sheet. As you plan the exploration phase, think about the following: How will questioning be used to sustain the inquiry? What activities must the children do to become familiar with the concept? What kinds of observations and records should the children keep? What kinds of instructions will the children need? How will you give the instructions without telling the concept?
The Third “E” - Explanation Two parts – students communicating with each other about what they did and the other part is the teacher identifying the concept. As you plan the explanation phase, think about the following: What kinds of information or findings should the children talk about in order to “make meaning” from the inquiry? How can you help students summarize their findings? How can you guide the students and refrain from telling them what they should have found, even if their understanding is incomplete? What concept “labels” should the children discover? How will you use sentence starters to help children form an operational definition of the concept? Why is the concept important and how does it connect to broader ideas?
The Fourth “E” - Extension Students apply their understanding to a new situation. As you plan the extension phase, think about the following: How can you connect with children's prior experiences? How does the concept relate to the science program goals? What questions can be used to encourage discovery of the concept's importance? How will you connect the lesson to the new content dimensions provided by the science standards? What new experiences will help to apply or expand the concept? What is the next concept related to the present one? S
The Fifth “E” – Evaluation Evaluation may take place throughout the learning cycle. As you plan the evaluation phase, think about the following: What are the appropriate learning outcomes you should expect? What types of hands-on evaluation techniques can the children do to demonstrate the basic process skills? What techniques are appropriate for children to demonstrate the integrated process skills? How can pictures help children to demonstrate how well they can think through problems? What types of questions will help children to reflect on what they have discovered? Where do the assessment tools best fit within the lesson?
Review of the Components of a Learning Cycle Inquiry-Based Lesson Plan Standards and outcomes A central concept A mechanism to engage learners, and questions and activity to drive the inquiry Materials to sustain inquiry Appropriate safety & management Exploring the concept With learners, developing an explanation of the concept Extending learner understanding and skills in using the concept Evaluating learning at appropriate times and in appropriate ways throughout the lesson
Inquiry and Cooperative Learning Groups Principal Investigator manages the group and checks the assignment Materials Manager collects and distributes all equipment Recorder collects all necessary information Reporter communicates the group's findings Maintenance Director directs the group's clean up effort
Key Features of the Learning Cycle Spiral Curriculum Method of curriculum design where the information in one learning cycle provides the foundation for the next. A science unit may consist of a series of multiple learning cycles. One Concept per Learning Cycle Teachers often feel pressure to include too many concepts. “Mile wide, inch deep curriculum in the U.S.” Several Classes to Teach one Learning Cycle It may require several sessions to teach one concept using the learning cycle approach.
Regarding Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students, Inquiry Methods Help Teachers….. Focus and support literacy thought processes. Stimulate productive discourse among children. Challenge children to accept and share responsibility for learning. Identify and support diversity. Encourage all children to participate fully in science learning. Encourage and model literacy skills. Encourage and model productive attitudes.