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Presentation on theme: "ECOSYSTEMS OF THE OCEAN"— Presentation transcript:

SOL 5.6 Biological Characteristics

2 Physical Changes (Depth)
Temperature Amount of light Salinity Pressure Plant and animal life

3 What is an ecosystem? An area made up of living organisms and the nonliving things in their environment Organisms in the ocean have adaptations to help them survive in their ecosystems.

4 The ocean ecosystem is made up of three main zones
The ocean ecosystem is made up of three main zones. These zones are based upon the amount of sunlight each zone receives.

5 SUNLIT ZONE The smallest zone
More than 90% of ocean organisms live here Receives the most sunlight

6 TWILIGHT ZONE Below the sunlit zone Very little sunlight Cold
High pressure High salinity Less food (fewer animals) Green plants do not grow here

7 MIDNIGHT ZONE Deepest part of the ocean Pitch black (no sunlight)
Freezing Greatest amount of pressure Greater than any other place on the Earth’s surface Covers 90% of the ocean’s space Least amount of ocean life

8 The ocean is full of organisms and marine life.


10 PLANKTON Tiny organisms that float or drift within the water Two kinds
Phytoplankton Like plants (need warm temperatures and sunlight) Make food through photosynthesis Make most of the oxygen found on Earth Zooplankton Tiny animals

11 NEKTON Ocean animals that can swim or move freely in the ocean
The largest portion of familiar animals found in the ocean Live at different depths Examples include fish, octopus, whales, eels, and squid

12 BENTHOS Plants and animals that live on the ocean floor of the ocean
Some are attached to the floor Examples: sea stars, oysters, clams, sea cucumbers, and sea anemones

13 FOOD WEB Organisms in each zone affect other organisms in that zone and in other zones.

14 FOOD CHAIN Plants and phytoplankton are on the bottom of all food chains in the ocean. They make their own food Use the sun’s energy and nutrients that are in the ocean

15 FOOD CHAIN Zooplankton eat the phytoplankton and plants.
Small fish eat the zooplankton. Large fish eat the small fish. When fish die, they sink. Decomposers eat their bodies. (Ex: sea slug, sea worm) Nutrients float back up into the water. Phytoplankton use these nutrients for photosynthesis.

16 Some scientists describe the ocean ecosystem more as a web than a chain because many sea creatures eat more than one kind of creature, and some creatures eat others from their own group.

17 OUR OCEAN ECOSYSTEM Without plankton, all of the oceans animals would die. All animals in the ocean depend on plankton for survival.


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