Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Social Structure And Interaction In Everyday Life."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 4 Social Structure And Interaction In Everyday Life
Chapter Outline Social Structure: The Macrolevel Perspective Components of Social Structure Societies: Changes in Social Structure Social Interaction: The Microlevel Perspective Changing Social Structure and Interaction in the Future
Social Structure Patterns of social relationships in a society make up its social structure. Social structure shapes the overall patterns in which social interaction occurs. Provides an ordered framework for society and for interactions with others.
Components of Social Structure Status Roles Groups Social Institutions
Status Distinguished by how they are acquired: Ascribed - status conferred at birth Achieved - status assumed by choice, merit or effort.
Roles The dynamic aspect of a status. Most people have a number of statuses (employee, parent) resulting in role conflict.
Role Exit Occurs when people leave a role central to their identity. (divorce, retirement, etc.) Three stages: 1. Doubt - frustrated by existing roles. 2. Search for alternatives - separation, leave of absence. 3. The turning point - take an action.
Groups Primary Family, close friends, school or work-related peer groups Secondary Schools, churches, corporations
Five Basic Social Institutions Family Religion Education Economy Government or politics
Functionalists: Five Tasks of Social Institutions 1. Replacing members. 2. Teaching new members. 3. Producing, distributing, and consuming goods and services. 4. Preserving order. 5. Providing and maintaining a sense of purpose.
Durkheim's Typology of Social Solidarity Social solidarity is based on social structure which is based on a society's division of labor. Mechanical Solidarity - people are united by traditions and shared values. Organic Solidarity - people are united by mutual dependence on one another.
Tönnies: Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft Concerned with what happens to social solidarity when a “loss of community” occurs. Gemeinschaft - social relationships are based on bonds of friendship and kinship. Gesellschaft - social bonds are based on impersonal relationships with little consensus on values.
Goffman’s Dramaturgical Analysis Daily interactions are similar to dramatic productions. Members of our “audience” judge our performance and are aware that we may reveal our true character. Most of us attempt to control the impressions we give to others.
Nonverbal Communication Facial expressions Head movements Eye contact Body positions Touching Personal space
Functions of Nonverbal Communication Supplements verbal communication. Regulates social interaction - body posture and eye contact signals whether we wish to talk with someone. Establishes the relationship among people in terms of their power over one another.
Personal Space -Distance Zones 1. Intimate distance (contact to 18 inches) - reserved for spouse, loves, and close friends. 2. Personal distance (18 inches to 4 feet) - reserved for friends and acquaintances 3. Social distance (4 to 12 feet) - impersonal and formal relationships 4. Public distance (beyond 12 feet) - makes interpersonal communication impossible