Presentation on theme: "The Reformation 1517-1563 By 10th century, Roman Catholic Church had come to dominate religious life in Northern and Western Europe. However, the Church."— Presentation transcript:
1 The ReformationBy 10th century, Roman Catholic Church had come to dominate religious life in Northern and Western Europe. However, the Church had not won universal approval. Over centuries, many people criticized its practices. They felt that Church leaders were too interested in worldly pursuits. People continued to criticize it and prompted by actions of one man, that criticism would lead to a rebellion.
2 Reformation – 16th century movement for religious reform leading to the foundation of churches that rejected the Pope’s authoritystarted by Martin Luther in 1517 when he posted his 95 Thesesended with the Catholic Council of Trent in 1563
3 Causes of the Reformation Social – humanists and secularism (aided by printing press) led people to question the churchPolitical – leaders viewed the Pope as a foreigner who had no real authorityEconomic – people become jealous of the church’s wealth and hated paying church taxesReligious – the church had become corrupt
4 Early Calls for ReformPeople had come to expect higher standards of conduct from priests and church leaders.Bible’s authority over clergy’s stressedDesiderius Erasmus and Thomas More are vocal critics of the ChurchReading religious works, European form their own opinion about Church.Atmosphere ripe for rebellion….
5 Martin Luther (1483-1546) was a monk and a teacher Believed faith alone was the key to salvationIn 1517 protested the selling of indulgences by the Catholic churchIndulgence: a pardon releasing a person from punishment due to a sinFriar raising money to rebuild St. Peter’s Cathedral by selling indulgencesIndulgences not supposed to affect God’s right to judge but Friar gave people the impression that by buying indulgences, they could buy their way into Heaven.In response, wrote the 95 Theses to attack those who sold indulgences (“pardon-merchants”)started the Reformation
6 95 ThesesLed to a founding of Christian churches that did not accept Pope’s authority.
7 Luther’s Teachings Luther went beyond just criticizing indulgences. He wanted full reform of the Church and based his teachings on 3 main ideas:People can win salvation only by faith in God’s forgiveness. “Good works” were not needed.All teachings of the Church should be based only on the Bible.All people of faith are equal. Priests are not needed to interpret the Bible.
8 Reactions of the Church Initially Church viewed Luther as a rebellious monk who needed to be punished by his superiors.But as Luther’s ideas became more popular, the Pope realized this monk was a serious threat.Pope Leo X threatened to excommunicate Luther in 1520 unless he takes back statements.Luther refuses to take back his statements and is excommunicatedLuther’s rights of Church membership are taken away
9 The Emperor’s Opposition Charles V – Holy Roman EmperorDevout Catholic and opposes LutherSummons Luther to Worms to recant statements – Luther refusesCharles V issues Edict of Worms (1521)Declares Luther a heretic and outlawNo one in empire was to give Luther food or shelter – all his books were to be burnedPrince Frederick the Wise of Saxony helps Luther – shelters him for a yearGerman princes support Luther’s ideas
10 LutheransLuther returns to society in 1522 and discovers many of his ideas are already being put into practice.Instead of continuing to seek Catholic Church reforms, Luther and followers begin a separate religious group – known as Lutherans.Lutherans: members of a Protestant church founded upon the teachings of Martin Luther
11 ProtestantsMany German princes supported Lutheranism whether by genuinely sharing Luther’s beliefs or selfish reasons such as a good excuse to seize Church property and assert independence from Charles V.Princes sign a protest against the Pope – became known as ProtestantsProtesting Princes = ProtestantsProtestant – a member of the Christian church founded on the principles of the ReformationChristians who belong to non-Catholic churches
12 Peace of Augsburg1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its rulerCharles V went to war with princes determined they were to remain Catholic.Finally weary of fighting agree on Peace of AugsburgPrinces of Germany agree that each ruler would decide the religion of his own areaApplied to Catholics and Protestants both
17 Brother Arthur was married to Catherine of Aragon It was arranged to help in an alliance with SpainDaughter of Queen Isabella and Ferdinand
18 They were married in November of 1501. Henry VIII was 10 at the time. SO GUESS WHAT NOW!?!?
19 Henry VIIIMarried Catherine of Aragon who 24 when she married Henry who was just 18She was pregnant by 1510 but it was still born daughterThe next child was a boy but died 52 days later.Catherine then had a miscarriage, followed by a short-lived son.Then gave birth to a daughter Mary.DIVORCED!!After that Catherine was out of child baring years and didn’t have a male heir. THIS UPSET HENRY SO….
20 Henry VIII Was a devout Catholic at heart Even wrote an attack back to Martin LutherIn recognition of Henry’s support – Pope gave him title “Defender of the Faith”Catherine 42 years old – Henry wanted to divorce her and take a younger queen due to need/desire for a male heir.But Church law did not allow divorce but Pope could annul (set aside) Henry’s marriage if proof that it had never been legal.
21 BUT WAIT!! So what do you do!?!? MAKE YOUR OWN CHURCH! The Church said NO !!So what do you do!?!?MAKE YOUR OWN CHURCH!
22 1529 Henry VIII calls Parliament to order and asks it to pass a set of laws to end Pope’s power in England.Henry VIII said he would create the Church of England with the Archduke of Canterbury as its head. And it was going to be a Protestant church. Introducing the Anglican ChurchNow he can get a divorce and get remarried to his new Love…Henry secretly marries Anne Boleyn in 1533 shortly after Parliament legalized Henry’s divorce.1534 Henry’s break with Pope completed when parliament voted to approve the Act of Supremacy which called on people to take an oath recognizing the divorce and accepting Henry, not the Pope, as the official head of England’s Church
24 Anne Boleyn She wasn’t really popular with the people Tried to have kids….had a girl Princess ElizabethTried two more times for the male heir…both died. (one was a boy)Tried again…..no boy!Her enemies mounted….and she was accused of conspiracy/treason sent to the Tower of London.
25 What was her fate now that she was in the Tower of London BEHEADED!
28 Jane SeymourMarried Henry VIII within 24 hours of Anne’s beheading.She gave him a son in 1537.But died as a result of the birth about a week later.King Henry is said to have been very upset.DIED!
29 DIVORCED! Anne of Cleves Henry waited 2 years before marrying again Married to get an alliance with FranceThough she was UGLY and told her often.Couldn’t take it anymore and …..DIVORCED!
30 BEHEADED! Kathryn Howard He was 49 and she was 19!!! ONE BIG PROBLEM! Disaster from the outset?!?He was 49 and she was 19!!!BEHEADED!ONE BIG PROBLEM!She was arrested with lots of proof that she had…boyfriends
31 SURVIVED!!! Katherine Parr Widow that remarried Known for taking care of him in his later yearsHenry died in 1547SURVIVED!!!
39 Henry’s Children Mary I –”Bloody Mary” Edward VI – king at a young age for only six yearsElizabeth I – started American Colonies
40 Mary I (Bloody Mary)Mary was the daughter of Henry VIII and Catharine of Aragon.During her childhood, Mary was persecuted by Henry when he wanted to annul his marriage to her mother.As Queen she attempted to restore Catholicism, and she married the young Philip from Spain.She also had more than 300 Protestants killed.None of these actions was popular with the now firmly entrenched Protestant England
41 Mary pressured Elizabeth to convert to Catholicism – she learned to go thru the motions Mary turned against Eliz. anyway – saw her as a threatShe wanted a husband to play the necessary chivalric role; at this time Charles V offered his handsome 26 yr old son Philip (she was 37 and less attractive)Spain was looking for an alliance w/ Eng. against France and hoped a re-Catholicized Eng. would help Spain against the revolt in the Netherlands
42 Mary and Philip had trouble conceiving a child…Philip decided to leave and pursue other kingdoms instead…and he came to favour Elizabeth over Mary as he thought it was better for the Habsburgs (w/o Eliz., the other successor was Mary, Queen of Scots, who would have allied with France)Mary’s regime had failed, and was unpopular anyway with the 100s of burnings…When Mary died peacefully, Elizabeth acceded to the throne peacefully – she was proclaimed in only 6 hrs. as having the “lawful right and title to the crown”
43 Elizabeth IThe red-haired daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, she became England’s greatest leader.She kept control of England by refusing to marry anyone and playing one noble against another – many hoping to marry the Queen.She kept religious wars down, advanced exploration, became a patron of the arts, and brought England to the position of world power with the defeat of the Spanish Armada.
44 Elizabeth I restored her kingdom to Protestantism after her sister Bloody Mary persecuted Protestants during her Catholic reign of England Parliament set up Church of England (Anglican Church) with Elizabeth at the head – only legal church in England.Establish state church that is moderate Catholics and moderate Protestants might accept.By taking this moderate approach, Elizabeth brought a level of religious peace to England.Religion however remained a problem.Money was another problem Elizabeth faced.While the American colonies strengthened England economically, they did not enrich the queen directly.Elizabeth’s constant need for money would carry over into the next reign and lead to bitterness between the monarch and Parliament.
45 Protestant Reforms All Over Protestants taught that the Bible is the source of all religious truth and that people should red it to discover truths.As Christians interpreted the Bible, new Protestant groups formed.
47 Protestant ReformersHuldrych Zwingli – attacked the Catholic church and wanted members to have more control over servicesJohn Calvin – said men and women are sinful by nature, people cannot earn salvation, God has chosen those to save already (called the “elect”) – predestinationJohn Knox – followed Calvin’s teachings but called church leaders presbyters (started the Presbyterian church) in ScotlandAnabaptists – believed that only people who were old enough to choose to be saved could be saved – those baptized at birth had to be “re-baptized” – believed in separation of church and stateForerunners of Mennonites and Amish
48 Protestant Reformation John Calvin establishes CalvinismCalvinism: A body of religious teachings based on the ideas of the reformer John CalvinDoctrine of Predestination (God determines your fate)Calvinism spread from Geneva to France, Scotland and Netherlands
49 Predestination We are sinful by nature and cannot earn salvation only those chosen by God to be saved will be saved (predestination)God has chosen these people already – we have no control over itthose who are chosen are called the “elect”Believed ideal government was a theocracy
50 Theocracy a government controlled by religious leaders rules are based on religious ideasusually the rules are very strict1541 Protestants in Geneva, Switzerland asked Calvin to lead their city.Strict rulesbright clothing and games were not allowedAttend religious classAuthorities imprison, excommunicate, or banish those who broke rulesIf preached a different doctrine were burned at the stake
51 Calvinism Spreads John Knox brings Calvinism to Scotland Followers called PresbyteriansPresbyterians: members of a Protestant church governed by presbyters (elders) and founded on the teachings of John KnoxChurch governed by laymen called presbyters or eldersCalvin’s followers in France called HuguenotsHatred between 2 generally led to violence.Catholics massacre Huguenots in Paris in 15726 months long – approx 12,000 Huguenots killed
52 Protestant Reformation Anabaptists accepted only adult members, and were persecuted in Europe.Only baptized people old enough to decide to be ChristianIf baptized earlier then re-baptized as adultsAnabaptists from Greek word meaning “baptized again”Many left for the Americas seeking religious freedomSeen as radical and persecuted by both Catholics and Protestants.We get our ideas of separation of church & state and religious freedom from them.Baptists, Mennonites, Amish…
53 Catholic Reformation16th century movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to make changes in response to the Protestant ReformationBrought about because of the Protestant ReformationWhile Protestant churches won many followers, millions remained true to Catholicism.Helping Catholics to remain loyal was a movement within the Catholic Church reform itself.Goal – To re-establish the church (reform the church from within)Done in three waysMake Changes to the Church DoctrineLaunch missionaries offensive to reclaim a large followingEliminate Church Abuses (indulgences & code of behavior)
54 Catholic Reformation Pope Paul III calls the Council of Trent Council of Trent: meeting of Roman Catholic leaders, called by Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant reformersMeetings of Bishops in Trent, ItalyMeet to clearly define the Church doctrineEspecially teaching on salvationDecided that salvation can not be accomplished by faith alone – but only by faith and works together
56 Council of TrentCatholic officials agreed to several statements of the church:1-Church’s interpretation of the Bible is final.2-Christians need both faith and good works to get to heaven.3-The Bible and the Church were equal religious authorities.4-Indulgences are valid expressions of faith, but selling them falsely is wrong.
57 Catholic Reformation Launched Inquisition to stamp out heresy Introduced censorship to get rid of humanist thinkingOnly Latin mass, Latin Bible
58 The InquisitionA Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy – especially the one active in Spain during the 1400sled to chaos in the church – many leaders of the church were put on trial as wellIgnatius of Loyola
59 Catholic Reformation The Society of Jesus - Jesuits All male missionaries of the Catholic ChurchFounded by Ignatius LoyolaHe was a leading Catholic reformerAbsolute obedience to the PopeWore Black robes and led a simple lifeSuccessful in Southern Germany, Bohemia, Poland, and Hungary
60 Legacy of the Reformation left Europe culturally dividedProtestant churches flourish and the Catholic church is more unifiededucation became more importantdid not change the role of womenCatholic church lost political powermonarchs gain political powerled to the Enlightenment