Attitudes are evaluative statements – either favorable or unfavorable about objects, people or events. They reflect how we feel about something. Eg: “I like my job” – I am expressing my attitude about work
Attitude tend to persist unless something is done to change them. They can fall anywhere along a continuum from very favorable to very unfavorable. They are directed toward some object about which a person has feelings and beliefs.
Basic convictions on how to conduct yourself or how to live your life that is personally or socially preferable – “How to” live life properly. Attributes of Values: Content Attribute – that the mode of conduct or end-state is important Intensity Attribute – just how important that content is. Value System A person’s values he believes Tends to be relatively constant and consistent
Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation, and behaviors Influence our perception of the world around us Represent interpretations of “right” and “wrong” Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over others
Terminal Values Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime Instrumental Values Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values People in same occupations or categories tend to hold similar values. But values vary between groups. Value differences make it difficult for groups to negotiate and may create conflict.
A comfortable life (a prosperous life) An exciting life (stimulating, active life) A sense of accomplishment (lasting contribution) A world of beauty (beauty of nature and the arts) Equality (brotherhood, equal opportunity for all) Family security (taking care of loved ones) Freedom (independence, free choice) Happiness (contentedness) Ambitious (hard working, aspiring) Broad-minded (open-minded) Capable (competent, efficient) Cheerful (lighthearted, joyful) Clean (neat, tidy) Courageous (standing up for your beliefs) Forgiving (willing to pardon others) Helpful (working for the welfare of others) Honest (sincere, truthful)
Cohort Entered Workforce Approximate Current Age Dominant Work Values Veterans1950-196465+Hard working, conservative, conforming; loyalty to the organization Boomers1965-198540-60sSuccess, achievement, ambition, dislike of authority; loyalty to career Xers1985-200020-40sWork/life balance, team- oriented, dislike of rules; loyalty to relationships Nexters (Gen Y) 2000- Present Under 30Confident, financial success, self- reliant but team-oriented; loyalty to both self and relationships
People’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself.People’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important.The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important. People’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself.People’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important.The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important.
In an interview for selection of candidate Problem of unrealistic expectations from new hires During performance assessments Managerial practices based on Theory X or Theory Y assumption about employees
Performance Evaluation Evaluation criteria influence the choice of actions. Reward Systems Decision makers make action choices that are favored by the organization. Formal Regulations Organizational rules and policies limit the alternative choices of decision makers. System-imposed Time Constraints Organizations require decisions by specific deadlines. Historical Precedents Past decisions influence current decisions.
Seeking the greatest good for the greatest number. Respecting and protecting basic rights of individuals. Imposing and enforcing rules fairly and impartially.
Analyze the situation, adjust your decision making approach Try to reduce impact of biasness and errors Combine rational analysis with intuitions Enhance your creativity