2 Focus for Contextualisation Why did Katanga secede from independent Congo?What were the immediate effects of this secession?In what ways did the secession of Katanga develop an international dimension?In what way was Ireland involved in the Secession of Katanga?
4 Province of Katanga Katanga was the richest province in the Congo Source of uranium used in atomic bombsMining companies had introduced, in some places, welfare programmes and education for its employeesBy 1950, one-third of the entire population of the Congo was ChristianNo educated native elite** N.B.
5 The Congo at Independence Former Belgian colony2.3 million square miles75 times larger than Belgium13 million native Congolese100,000 white (mainly Belgian) settlersCongo contained about 200 separate & distinct tribes (own language) = ‘Ethnic Groups’
6 Key Personalities: Belgian King Baudouin1930 – 1993King of Belgium‘Mwana Kitoko’King Leopold II1835 – 1909
7 Key Personalities: Congolese Patrice Lumumba1st leader of independent Congo (67 days) (MNC)Moise Tshombe1919 – 1969Pro-Belgian leader of Katanga (Conakat Party)Joseph Kasavubu1910 – 19691st President of Republic of Congo(Abako Party)
8 Independence Movements ABAKO: tribal organisation based on support of Kongo peopleCONAKAT: Led by Moise Tshombe, this Katangan group wanted to retain ties with Belgium and local self-government for KatangaCongolese National Movement (MNC): Wanted a united, independent Congo. Congolese Nationalist movement, seeking a national, rather than tribal, support. Led by Patrice Lumumba
9 Independence Approaches President General de Gaulle of France announced a new departure in 1958, opening up the possibility & choice of independence for French coloniesThis would affect large parts of the African continent e.g. Morocco, Algeria, The Congo, Sudan etc.Rioting broke out in Leopoldville in January 1959.In response, Belgian authorities agreed to local elections and a promise of future independence.120 political groups contested these elections, mostly along tribal lines of allegiance.Only the MNC set a nationwide, electoral manifesto.
10 The ‘Roundtable Conference’ 18th – 27th January 1960 Kasavubu, Lumumba & Tshombe invited to Brussels to discuss the future of the Congo with Belgian Government
11 1960: Independence of Congo Democratic Republic of Congo&Secession of Katanga
13 1960 – Congo declared free by Belgium Democratic Republic of the CongoProvince of Katanga attempted to secede – civil warUnited Nations troops kept peace for four yearsFormer president of Katanga, Moise Tshombe, became prime minister in 1964
14 Independence of Congo & Secession of Katanga 1960 - 1965 A Chronology of Events, Personalities & Conflicts
16 June 1960 - Congo becomes independent Patrice Lumumba: Joseph Kasavubu: Prime Minister President
17 July 1960: Army Mutiny & Katangan Secession Tshombe declares Katanga independent (secession) (11th July)Congolese Army Mutiny (5th July)Issue over no pay raise to army, while all other Government employees received a pay raiseRank & file soldiers of Force Publique rebelled against Officer Corps (mainly foreigners)Rioting & looting throughout Leopoldville.‘Africanise’ the army: Armee Nationale Congolaise (ANC)Belgian forces brought in, without permission, to protect Belgian settles and mining interestsTshombe declared Katanga independent a couple of days laterSupported by Belgian troops (6,000) & powerful business & industrial interests (companies) “Seceding from chaos“: TshombeMiltarised police force & mercenariesLuba province in north of Katanga seceded from Katanga itself
18 September – December 1960: Chaos in Congolese Government September 1960: Lumumba dismissed as P.M.December 1960: Lumumba arrested
19 February: Lumumba killed August: UN forces begin disarming the Katangese military
22 Kasavubu & TshombeIn a bid to unite the country, President Kasavubu appointed Tshombe (former President of secessionist Katanga) as Prime Minister of the Congo
23 The Mobutu CoupKasavubu & Tshombe ousted in military coup d’etát by General Désiré MobutuMobutu renames the country ‘Zaire’ (1971)Mobutu declares himself ‘Mobutu Sese Seko’Katanga Province re-named ‘Shaba’Ruled the Democratic Republic of Congo for three decades