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Secession of Katanga 1960 - 1965.

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Presentation on theme: "Secession of Katanga 1960 - 1965."— Presentation transcript:

1 Secession of Katanga

2 Focus for Contextualisation
Why did Katanga secede from independent Congo? What were the immediate effects of this secession? In what ways did the secession of Katanga develop an international dimension? In what way was Ireland involved in the Secession of Katanga?

3 Belgium & Congo

4 Province of Katanga Katanga was the richest province in the Congo
Source of uranium used in atomic bombs Mining companies had introduced, in some places, welfare programmes and education for its employees By 1950, one-third of the entire population of the Congo was Christian No educated native elite** N.B.

5 The Congo at Independence
Former Belgian colony 2.3 million square miles 75 times larger than Belgium 13 million native Congolese 100,000 white (mainly Belgian) settlers Congo contained about 200 separate & distinct tribes (own language) = ‘Ethnic Groups’

6 Key Personalities: Belgian
King Baudouin 1930 – 1993 King of Belgium ‘Mwana Kitoko’ King Leopold II 1835 – 1909

7 Key Personalities: Congolese
Patrice Lumumba 1st leader of independent Congo (67 days) (MNC) Moise Tshombe 1919 – 1969 Pro-Belgian leader of Katanga (Conakat Party) Joseph Kasavubu 1910 – 1969 1st President of Republic of Congo (Abako Party)

8 Independence Movements
ABAKO: tribal organisation based on support of Kongo people CONAKAT: Led by Moise Tshombe, this Katangan group wanted to retain ties with Belgium and local self-government for Katanga Congolese National Movement (MNC): Wanted a united, independent Congo. Congolese Nationalist movement, seeking a national, rather than tribal, support. Led by Patrice Lumumba

9 Independence Approaches
President General de Gaulle of France announced a new departure in 1958, opening up the possibility & choice of independence for French colonies This would affect large parts of the African continent e.g. Morocco, Algeria, The Congo, Sudan etc. Rioting broke out in Leopoldville in January 1959. In response, Belgian authorities agreed to local elections and a promise of future independence. 120 political groups contested these elections, mostly along tribal lines of allegiance. Only the MNC set a nationwide, electoral manifesto.

10 The ‘Roundtable Conference’ 18th – 27th January 1960
Kasavubu, Lumumba & Tshombe invited to Brussels to discuss the future of the Congo with Belgian Government

11 1960: Independence of Congo
Democratic Republic of Congo & Secession of Katanga


13 1960 – Congo declared free by Belgium
Democratic Republic of the Congo Province of Katanga attempted to secede – civil war United Nations troops kept peace for four years Former president of Katanga, Moise Tshombe, became prime minister in 1964

14 Independence of Congo & Secession of Katanga 1960 - 1965
A Chronology of Events, Personalities & Conflicts


16 June 1960 - Congo becomes independent Patrice Lumumba: Joseph Kasavubu: Prime Minister President

17 July 1960: Army Mutiny & Katangan Secession
Tshombe declares Katanga independent (secession) (11th July) Congolese Army Mutiny (5th July) Issue over no pay raise to army, while all other Government employees received a pay raise Rank & file soldiers of Force Publique rebelled against Officer Corps (mainly foreigners) Rioting & looting throughout Leopoldville. ‘Africanise’ the army: Armee Nationale Congolaise (ANC) Belgian forces brought in, without permission, to protect Belgian settles and mining interests Tshombe declared Katanga independent a couple of days later Supported by Belgian troops (6,000) & powerful business & industrial interests (companies)  “Seceding from chaos“: Tshombe Miltarised police force & mercenaries Luba province in north of Katanga seceded from Katanga itself

18 September – December 1960: Chaos in Congolese Government
September 1960: Lumumba dismissed as P.M. December 1960: Lumumba arrested

19 February: Lumumba killed
August: UN forces begin disarming the Katangese military


21 Katanga ends Secession

22 Kasavubu & Tshombe In a bid to unite the country, President Kasavubu appointed Tshombe (former President of secessionist Katanga) as Prime Minister of the Congo

23 The Mobutu Coup Kasavubu & Tshombe ousted in military coup d’etát by General Désiré Mobutu Mobutu renames the country ‘Zaire’ (1971) Mobutu declares himself ‘Mobutu Sese Seko’ Katanga Province re-named ‘Shaba’ Ruled the Democratic Republic of Congo for three decades


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