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EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE The Worshipping Community Chapters 8+9, Nuttgens, Story of Architecture 1.

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Presentation on theme: "EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE The Worshipping Community Chapters 8+9, Nuttgens, Story of Architecture 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE The Worshipping Community Chapters 8+9, Nuttgens, Story of Architecture 1

2 Santa Costanza Rome c.350 Chapter 8+9 Architectural History 2 fig130

3 Catacombs off the Via Latina, Rome 4 th century Christians did not adopt Roman cremation but wanted to be buried, near an apostle’s grave Chapter 8+9 Architectural History 3 fig131

4 Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome 432-440 Basilica plan with nave arcaded in classical trabeated style: lintels rest on columns Chapter 8+9 Architectural History 4 fig132

5 Santa Sabina, Rome 422-430 Nave arcaded by arches resting on pillars Opens up the plan Chapter 8+9 Architectural History 5 fig133

6 Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem Built by Constantine Replaced apse at the end by an octagonal chapel Chapter 8+9 Architectural History 6 fig134

7 7 Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem 326-333

8 Old Basilica of St. Peter, Rome c.330 Replaced vaults with simple walls and columns holding up wooden roofs Chapter 8+9 Architectural History 8 fig135 Built over the graves of a saint – holy person

9 San Apolinare in Classe, Ravenna c. 534-549 Free-standing campanile – bell tower Earliest example of a round tower Chapter 8+9 Architectural History 9

10 Mausoleum of Galla Placida, Ravenna 420 Interior burst of colourful Byzantine mosaics Chapter 8+9 Architectural History 10 fig137

11 St. Simeon Stylites Amalgamation of congregational basilica with centralized shrine Chapter 8+9 Architectural History 11

12 12 Europe 530 AD

13 13 Europe 814 AD

14 14 San Vitale Ravenna Italy (532-548) Entry

15 15 San Vitale Ravenna Italy (532-548) Aerial View

16 16 San Vitale, Ravenna (Interior)

17 17 Hagia Sophia, Istanbul (532-537) Plan and Satellite Photo Hagia Sophia, Istanbul (532-537) Plan and Satellite Photo

18 18 Hagia Sophia, Istanbul ( Sections) Longitudinal-Section Cross-Section

19 19 Hagia Sophia, Istanbul (Isometric) Cross-Section

20 20 Hagia Sophia, Istanbul (532-537) External Views

21 21 Hagia Sophia, Istanbul (Ext. Overview)

22 22 Hagia Sophia, Istanbul (532-537) Interior Views

23 23 Hagia Sophia, Istanbul (532-537) Dome

24 24 Hagia Sophia, Istanbul (Details)

25 Monastery Church, Daphni Each area developed its own version of Hagia Sophia fig147

26 Hosios Loukas Monastery The cross-plan is expressed on the exterior by separate pan-tiled roofs over the different sections

27 Byzantine Churches Megistis Lavras - one of 20 monasteries on the island of Mount Athos Mistra - fortified town contains the Palace to the last Byzantine emperor and was a centre of Byzantine scholarship Church of St. Theodore

28 St. Mark’s, Venice Holy Apostles in Constantinople The magnificent facade has three tiers of semicircular shapes with 5 deep- set doorways between a two-tier paling of little pillars; five rounded gable ends with ogee eyebrows Refugees from the barbarian hordes crossed the Adriatic lagoons to create Venice. St. Mark’s is a Greek-cross, five-domed church based on Justinian’s Church of the

29 St. Mark’s Venice Lead covered domes with garlic-bulb finials. Inside, it is entirely sheathed in a molten skin of gold mosaic

30 Ani Cathedral, Armenia Ani, capital of Armenia, was once the city of a thousand churches; now abandoned to grassland Reconstruction

31 Ani Cathedral, Armenia

32 Santa Sophia, Kiev The Russian contribution to the Byzantine style is the onion dome which swells outward before curving inward. Santa Sophia was originally built with one large dome and 12 smaller apostle domes but was elaborated with extra aisles and domes

33 St. Basil’s, Moscow Built by Ivan the Terrible in 1550 A cluster of smaller domes surrounds the central dome The many- coloured tiling was added in the 17 th century

34 St. Basil’s, Moscow


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