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7-1 Management Roles, Functions, and Skills Chapter 7.

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1 7-1 Management Roles, Functions, and Skills Chapter 7

2 Chapter 7 Objectives After studying this chapter, you will be able to: Explain the importance of management and identify the three vital management roles. Describe the planning function and outline the strategic process. Describe the organizing function and differentiate among top, middle, and first-line management. 7-2

3 Chapter 7 Objectives Cont. Describe the leading function, leadership style, and organizational culture. Describe the controlling function and explain the four steps in the control cycle. Identify and explain five important types of managerial skills. 7-3

4 Managerial Functions 7-4 Planning Controlling Organizing Leading

5 Managerial Roles 7-5 Interpersonal Informational Decisional

6 Managerial Roles 12-6 Interpersonal roles: Management is largely a question of getting work accomplished through the efforts of other people. Including;  Providing leadership to employees  Building relationships  Acting as a liaison between groups and individuals both inside and outside the company 1-6

7 Managerial Roles 12-7 Informational roles: Managers spend a fair amount of time gathering information from sources both inside and outside the organization. They also distribute information to employees, other managers, and other stakeholders. 1-7

8 Executive Dashboards

9 Managerial Roles 12-9 Decisional roles: From deciding how to respond to a customer complaint to deciding whether to acquire another company or develop a new product line, managers up and down the organizational ladder face an endless stream of decisions. 1-9

10 The Planning Function 7-10 Develop Strategies or Success Develop Strategies or Success Set Goals and Objectives Set Goals and Objectives Develop Action Plans Develop Action Plans Planning: Establishing objectives and goals for an organization and determining the best ways to accomplish them.

11 Strategic Planning Process 7-11

12 Define Mission, Vision, and Values Mission Statement A brief statement of why an organization exists; in other words, what the organization aims to accomplish for customers, investors, and other stakeholders Vision Statement A brief and inspirational expression of what a company aspires to be Values Statement A brief articulation of the principles that guide a company’s decisions and behaviors 7-12

13 SWOT Analysis 7-13

14 SWOT ©2007 Prentice Hall Strengths are positive internal factors that contribute to a company’s success Weaknesses are negative internal factors that inhibit the company’s success Opportunities are positive external situations that represent the possibility of generating new revenue Threats are negative forces that could inhibit a firm’s ability to achieve its objectives 1-14

15 Develop Forecasts 7-15 QualitativeForecastingQualitativeForecastingQuantitativeForecastingQuantitativeForecasting StatisticalComputationsStatisticalComputationsIntuitiveJudgmentsIntuitiveJudgmentsConsumerResearchConsumerResearchHistoricalDataHistoricalData Quantitative Forecasts: Typically based on historical data or tests and often involve complex statistical computations Qualitative Forecasts Based on intuitive judgments

16 Competitive Analysis SWOT Analysis Internal Strengths Weaknesses External Opportunities Threats 7-16

17 Establishing Goals and Objectives 7-17 Sets Standards Boosts Motivation Guides Activity Clarifies Expectations Broad, Long-Range Target or Aim Broad, Long-Range Target or Aim Goals ObjectivesObjectives Specific, Short-Range Target or Aim Specific, Short-Range Target or Aim

18 Establishing Goals and Objectives 7-18 S pecific M easurable A ttainable R elevant T ime limited SMART

19 Develop Action Plans Tactical Plans: Plans that define the actions and the resource allocation necessary to achieve tactical objectives and to support strategic plans. Operational Plans: Plans that lay out the actions and the resource allocation needed to achieve operational objectives and to support tactical plans. 7-19

20 Action Plans Tactical (1 – 3 years) Tactical (1 – 3 years) Operational (less than 1 year) Operational (less than 1 year) 1-20

21 Organizing Employee Activities Facilities and Equipment Decision Making Supervision Resource Distribution 1-21 Organizing: The process of arranging resources to carry out the organization’s plans.

22 The Management Pyramid 7-22

23 The Management Pyramid (cont.) 7-23 Top Managers: Those at the highest level of the organization’s management hierarchy. Responsible for setting strategic goals, and they have the most power and responsibility in the organization. Middle Managers: Those in the middle of the management hierarchy. They develop plans to implement the goals of top managers and coordinate the work of first-line managers. First-line Managers: Those at the lowest level of the management hierarchy. They supervise the operating employees and implement the plans set at the higher management levels.

24 Leading 7-24 Cognitive Intelligence: Involves reasoning, problem solving, memorization, and other rational skills. Emotional Intelligence: Measure of a person’s awareness of and ability to manage his or her own emotions. Social intelligence: Involves looking outward to understand the dynamics of social situations and the emotions of other people, in addition to your own.

25 Leadership Styles 7-25

26 Leadership Styles (cont.) ©2007 Prentice Hall Autocratic leaders make decisions without consulting others. “My way or the highway” summarizes this style. Democratic leaders delegate authority and involve employees in decision making. Laissez-faire leaders take the role of consultants, encouraging employees’ ideas and offering insights or opinions when asked. 1-26

27 Leadership Styles (cont.) ©2007 Prentice Hall Participative Management : A philosophy of allowing employees to take part in planning and decision making. Employee Empowerment Granting decision-making and problem-solving authorities to employees so they can act without getting approval from management.

28 Leadership Tasks 7-28 CoachingMentoring Meeting with employees Meeting with employees Discussing problems Discussing problems Offering suggestions Offering suggestions Encouraging solutions Encouraging solutions Guiding employees Guiding employees Explaining office politics Explaining office politics Serving as role models Serving as role models Providing valuable advice Providing valuable advice

29 Managing Change 7-29 Present Situation Process of Change New Situation Identify What Needs to Change Identify Forces For and Against Change Select the Best Approach Reinforce and Monitor Behavior

30 Organizational Culture 7-30 CommunityCommunityCommunicationCommunicationEmployeePerformanceEmployeePerformance Company Values PeoplePeople Organizational Culture: A set of shared values and norms that support the management system and that guide management and employee behavior.

31 Creating the Ideal Culture in Your Company 7-31

32 Creating the Ideal Culture in Your Company 7-32

33 The Controlling Function 7-33 Monitoring Progress Resetting The Course Correcting Deviations Controlling: The process of measuring progress against goals and objectives and correcting deviations if results are not as expected.

34 The Controlling Cycle 7-34 Standards: Criteria against which performance is measured Benchmarking: Collecting and comparing process and performance data from other companies

35 Crisis Planning Contingency Plans Open Communication Corporate Power Struggles Environmental Accidents Operational Breakdowns Product Failures

36 Essential Management Skills Interpersonal Skills: Skills required to understand other people and to interact effectively with them. Technical Skills: The ability and knowledge to perform the mechanics of a particular job. Administrative Skills: Technical skills in information gathering, data analysis, planning, organizing, and other aspects of managerial work. Conceptual Skills: The ability to understand the relationship of parts to the whole. Decision Making Skills: The ability to identify a decision situation, analyze the problem, weigh the alternatives, choose an alternative, implement it, and to evaluate the results. 7-36

37 Decision-Making Process 7-37

38 Applying What You’ve Learned 1. Explain the importance of management and identify the three vital management roles 2. Describe the planning function and outline the strategic planning process 3. Describe the organizing function and differentiate among top, middle, and first-line management 7-38

39 Applying What You’ve Learned (cont.) 4. Describe the leading function, leadership style, and organizational culture 5. Describe the controlling function and explain the four steps in the control cycle 6. Identify and explain five important types of managerial skills 7-39


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