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Amphibian Taxonomy.

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Presentation on theme: "Amphibian Taxonomy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Amphibian Taxonomy

2 Amphibian Basics Ectothermic vertebrates 3 Chambered heart
Glandular Skin Cryptic Scaleless Ectotherm Glandular Skin Don’t drink water Cryptic behavior and secretive Metamorphosis: -4 limbs -The gills are replaced by other respiratory organs, i.e., lungs. -The skin changes and develops glands to avoid dehydration. -The eyes develop eyelids and adapt to vision outside the water. -An eardrum is developed to lock the middle ear. -In frogs and toads, the tail disappears. Well developed olfactory sense Little metabolic control of body temp., body temp from env’tal (air, water, substrate, sun), behavior/physiological adjustments Skin: absorb/lose water passively, respire; contact w/moist substrate, relatively humid air, postural adjust w/moisture gradient 2

3 Metamorphosis Aquatic to land Primary Changes: -Legs -Lungs -Eyes
-Tail (anurans) -Skin Unique to amphibians (separates them from reptiles and fish which they are related to evolutionarily) Larvae (tadpole0 to adult) Grows as larvae, then hindlimb 1st develops Eggs are laid in water.. The intestine shortens to accommodate a carnivorous diet eyes migrate rostrally and dorsally. In frogs the tail is absorbed by the body, There are many deviations from the typical amphibian lifecycle. Some species of salamander do not need to metamorphose to be sexually mature, and will only metamorphose under certain environmental stresses. Many species of frog from the tropics lay their eggs on land, where the tadpoles undergo metamorphosis within the egg. Once they hatch, they are immature copies of the adults, sometimes possessing a tail which is re-absorbed in a couple of days.

4 Metamorphosis Exceptions
Environmental stress induction Terrestrial egg metamorphosis Hourglass tree frog

5 Timeline for Metamorphosis
Weeks to years Species and environment dependent

6 Taxonomy-Three Orders
Caudata Anura Gymnophiona 3 orders Natural hx understanding is important for good husbandry practices: habitat,temp 6

7 Order Differences Limbs Tails Vision Fertilization
Sirens lack hindlimbs 7

8 Salamander vs. Lizard Water requirements Skin Eggs & young

9 Size-Largest -Chinese Giant Salamander-up to 180 cm
-Goliath Frog-up to 32 cm

10 Size-Smallest Smallest- Thorius sp. - 15 mm.
Eleutherodactylus sp.- 10 mm Pygmy salamander

11 Owning an amphibian Life Span: up to 55 years! Aggressive vs. Friendly
Budgett’s frog, related to horned frog 11

12 Owning an amphibian Research and Plan!!!!! LIBRARY!!!
KNOW Natural History Review literature about desired species prior to ownership Booklets, hobbyist magazines, animal care staff at zoos/aquaria, local herp society, scientific journals, caution with websites know life span, adult size, handling, feeding, habitat, temperament, daily care needs, space req’ts 12

13 Pet Trade Restrictions
Within the U.S.: ex. African Clawed Frog CITES listings -Appendix I= 16 spp. ~Giant Salamanders -Appendix II- 98 spp. ~Dendrobates Appendix I includes species threatened with extinction. Trade in specimens of these species is permitted only in exceptional circumstances. Appendix II includes species not necessarily threatened with extinction, but in which trade must be controlled in order to avoid utilization incompatible with their survival.

14 Gymnophiona (caecilians)
6 families, 172 species Pantropic Not kept as pets Gymnophiona-not kept as pets (or as lab animals)-caecilians, pantropic 6 families, 172 species 14

15 Yellow-striped caecilian

16 Aquatic caecilian

17 Caudata -Ambystoma 10 families, >500 species
N./S. America, Europe, Asia Common Pets: -Ambystoma tigrinum (Tiger Salmander) maculatum (Spotted Salamander) -Cynops pyrrhogaster (Fire Bellied Newt) Mole salamander salamanders and sirens, holartic; Ambystoma spp. (mole salamander) 10 families, >500 species 17

18 Hellbender Cryptobranchus alleganiensis

19 Greater siren Siren lacertina

20 Amphiuma

21 Mudpuppy

22 Mexican axolotl

23 Tiger salamander

24 Waterdog

25 Lungless salamander

26 Arboreal salamander

27 Palm salamander

28 Ensatina

29 Red salamander

30 Anura 33 families, >5000 species Worldwide* Common Pets/Research:
-Xenopus spp. (African clawed frog) -Rana spp. (Leopard frog) -Dendrobates spp. (Poison arrow frog) -Hylidae family. (Tree frogs) Anura distrubition: frogs and toads, cosmopolitan, except high latitude in Artic and Antartic, & some ocean islands, xenic deserts Xenopus spp. (African clawed frog et. Al)  Rana spp. (leopard frogs)  Dendrobates spp. (poison arrow frogs) poison arrow frogs: brighly coloration = pets  req’ts of each in habitat -2700 species, 21 families 30

31 Frog vs. Toad -Water -Skin -Leg length and power -Predators
Leopard frog and Giant toad Popular vs. Scientific Use (2 of the families, bufonids (“true toads”) and pelobatids (spadefoot toads) Frogs: Need to live near water Have smooth, moist skin that makes them look “slimy”. Have a narrow body  Have higher, rounder, bulgier eyes Have longer hind legs  Take long high jumps Have many predators Toads: Do not need to live near water to survive Have rough, dry, bumpy skin Have a wider body Have lower, football shaped eyes Have shorter, less powerful hind legs Will run or take small hops rather than jump Do not have many predators. Toad’s skin lets out a bitter taste and smell that burns the eyes and nostrils of its predators, much like a skunk does. -Water -Skin -Leg length and power -Predators 31

32 Dwarf frog

33 Surinam toad

34 African clawed frog

35 Asian leaf frog

36 Harlequin toad

37 American toad

38 Houston toad

39 Marine toad

40 Asian tree toad

41 Tomato frog

42 Malaysian toad

43 Dendrobates Poison dart frogs
Red-backed poison dart frog

44 Hylidae - Tree frogs

45 Green tree frog

46 Monkey frog

47 White’s tree frog

48 Ranidae - Mantellas

49 American bullfrog

50 African pyxie frog

51 Eyelash frog

52 Tropical Frogs - Surinam horned frog

53 Ornate horned frog

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