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Organizations and Management. What is an Organization? ► A collection of people working together to achieve a common purpose. ► What is an advantage of.

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Presentation on theme: "Organizations and Management. What is an Organization? ► A collection of people working together to achieve a common purpose. ► What is an advantage of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organizations and Management

2 What is an Organization? ► A collection of people working together to achieve a common purpose. ► What is an advantage of an organization? ► Provides goods or services ► Value must be returned to society, customers need to be satisfied.

3

4 Organizations as Systems ► Organizations are made up of parts that work together to a common goal. ► Open Systems interact with their environment to transform resources into product outputs. ► The external environment is an important piece of the “open-systems” view of organization.

5 Open System Model Customer and client feedback

6 Organizational Performance ► Organizations make profit by adding value to inputs. ► Whatever comes in has to leave more valuable. This allows them to sell the product for more than it cost them. ► How do we measure performance then?

7 Organizational Performance ► Customers provide feedback. -Customer satisfaction/loyalty measurements -Market Share ► So do employees. -Retention -Career Development -Job satisfaction -Task performance

8 Organizational Performance ► Productivity -The quantity and quality of work performance, with resource use considered. ► Performance Effectiveness and Performance Efficiency are ways of looking at productivity.

9 Effective but not efficient -Goals achieved -Resources Wasted Effective and efficient -Goals Achieved -No resources wasted -High productivity Not Effective or efficient -Goals not achieved -Resources Wasted Effective but not efficient -No resources wasted -Goals not achieved Poor Resource Utilization Good High Goal Attainment Low

10 Changing Nature of Organizations ► Business has changed AND is always changing. ► These themes are things that are important to keep in mind.

11 Changing Nature of Organizations ► Belief in Human Capital - People are everything. Knowledge/experience valued. ► Demise of “Command and Control” – “Do as I say” is no longer the main way of running businesses. ► Emphasis on Teamwork – Horizontal focus, not vertical ► Pre-eminence of Technology – New tech leads to new opportunities

12 Changing Nature of Organizations ► Embrace of Networking – With everyone involved in the business. ► New Workforce expectations – New generation of workers have different attitudes/demands ► Concern for work-life balance – Keeping work and personal affairs separate ► Focus on speed – Production and other areas

13 Changing Nature of Organizations ► Google Cardboard Google Cardboard Google Cardboard ► We are going to be talking again and again, about Total Quality Management (TQM). This is when an organization is committed on every level to meeting customer needs. ► Everything from manufacturing, customer service, sales, shipping, even human resources.

14 Management Fundamentals - Chapter 1 14 Study Question 3: Who are managers and what do they do?  A manager is a person in an organization who supports and is responsible for the work of others.  The people who managers help are the ones whose tasks represent the real work of the organization.

15 Management Fundamentals - Chapter 1 15 Study Question 3: Who are managers and what do they do?  Levels of management:  Top managers — responsible for performance of an organization as a whole or for one of its larger parts.  Middle managers — in charge of relatively large departments or divisions.  Project managers __ coordinate complex projects with task deadlines.  Team leaders or supervisors — in charge of a small work group of non-managerial workers.

16 Management Fundamentals - Chapter 1 16 Study Question 3: Who are managers and what do they do?  Importance of human resources and managers …  “Toxic workplaces” treat employees as costs.  High performing organizations treat people as valuable strategic assets.  Managers must ensure that people are treated as strategic assets.

17 Management Fundamentals - Chapter 1 17 Study Question 3: Who are managers and what do they do?  Responsibilities of team leaders:  Plan meetings and work schedules.  Clarify goals and tasks, and gather ideas for improvement.  Appraise performance and counsel team members.  Recommend pay raises and new assignments.  Recruit, develop, and train team members.

18 Management Fundamentals - Chapter 1 18 Study Question 3: Who are managers and what do they do?  Responsibilities of team leaders (cont.):  Encourage high performance and teamwork.  Inform team members about organizational goals and expectations.  Inform higher levels of work unit needs and accomplishments.  Coordinate with others teams and support the rest of the organization.

19 Management Fundamentals - Chapter 1 19 Study Question 3: Who are managers and what do they do?  Types of managers  Line managers are responsible for work activities that directly affect organization’s outputs.  Staff managers use technical expertise to advise and support the efforts of line workers.  Functional managers are responsible for a single area of activity.  General managers are responsible for more complex units that include many functional areas.  Administrators work in public and nonprofit organizations.

20 Management Fundamentals - Chapter 1 20 Study Question 3: Who are managers and what do they do?  Managerial performance and accountability  Accountability is the requirement of one person to answer to a higher authority for relevant performance results.  Effective managers fulfill performance accountability by helping others to achieve high performance outcomes and experience satisfaction in their work.

21 Management Fundamentals - Chapter 1 21 Study Question 3: Who are managers and what do they do?  Quality of work life (QWL)  An indicator of the overall quality of human experiences in the workplace.  QWL indicators: ► Fair pay ► Safe working conditions ► Opportunities to learn and use new skills ► Room to grow and progress in a career ► Protection of individual rights ► Pride in work itself and in the organization

22 Management Fundamentals - Chapter 1 22 Study Question 3: Who are managers and what do they do?  High performing managers …  Build working relationships with others.  Help others develop their skills and performance competencies.  Foster teamwork.  Create a work environment that is performance- driven and provides satisfaction for workers.

23 Management Fundamentals - Chapter 1 23 Study Question 3: Who are managers and what do they do?  The organization as an upside-down pyramid …  Each individual is a value-added worker.  A manager’s job is to support workers’ efforts.  The best managers are known for helping and supporting.

24 Management Fundamentals - Chapter 1 24 Figure 1.3 The organization viewed as an upside-down pyramid.

25 Management Fundamentals - Chapter 1 25 Study Question 4: What is the management process?  Management is the process of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling the use of resources to accomplish performance goals.  All managers are responsible for the four functions.  The functions are carried on continually.

26 Management Fundamentals - Chapter 1 26 Figure 1.4 Four functions of management.

27 Management Fundamentals - Chapter 1 27 Study Question 4: What is the management process?  Functions of management …  Planning ► The process of setting objectives and determining what actions should be taken to accomplish them.  Organizing ► The process of assigning tasks, allocating resources, and arranging the coordinated activities of individuals and groups to implement plans.

28 Management Fundamentals - Chapter 1 28 Study Question 4: What is the management process?  Functions of management …  Leading ► The process of arousing people’s enthusiasm to work hard and direct their efforts to fulfill plans and accomplish objectives.  Controlling ► The process of measuring work performance, comparing results to objectives, and taking corrective action as needed.

29 Management Fundamentals - Chapter 1 29 Study Question 4: What is the management process?  Managerial activities and roles …  Interpersonal roles ► Involve interactions with persons inside and outside the work unit.  Informational roles ► Involve giving, receiving, and analyzing of information. – Decisional roles ► Involve using information to make decisions in order to solve problems or address opportunities.

30 Management Fundamentals - Chapter 1 30 Figure 1.5 Mintzberg’s 10 managerial roles.

31 Management Fundamentals - Chapter 1 31 Study Question 4: What is the management process?  Characteristics of managerial work …  Managers work long hours.  Managers work at an intense pace.  Managers work at fragmented and varied tasks.  Managers work with many communication media.  Managers work largely through interpersonal relationships.

32 Management Fundamentals - Chapter 1 32 Study Question 4: What is the management process?  Managerial agendas and networks …  Agenda setting ► Development of action priorities for one’s job. ► Include goals and plans that span long and short time frames.  Networking ► Process of building and maintaining positive relationships with people whose help may be needed to implement one’s work agendas.

33 Management Fundamentals - Chapter 1 33 Study Question 5: How do you learn the essential managerial skills and competencies?  What is a skill?  Essential managerial skills  Skill — the ability to translate knowledge into action that results in desired performance.  Technical skill — the ability to apply a special proficiency or expertise to perform particular tasks.  Human skill — the ability to work well in cooperation with others.  Conceptual skill — the ability to think critically and analytically to solve complex problems.

34 Management Fundamentals - Chapter 1 34 Figure 1.6 Katz’s essential managerial skills.

35 Management Fundamentals - Chapter 1 35 Study Question 5: How do you learn the essential managerial skills and competencies?  Managerial competency …  A skill-based capability that contributes to high performance in a management job.  Managerial competencies are implicit in:  Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.  Informational, interpersonal, and decisional roles.  Agenda setting and networking.

36 Management Fundamentals - Chapter 1 36 Study Question 5: How do you learn the essential managerial skills and competencies?  Competencies for managerial success:  Communication  Teamwork  Self-management  Leadership  Critical thinking  Professionalism

37 Management Fundamentals - Chapter 1 37 Figure 1.7 Understanding Management from Theory to Practice.


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