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The Historical Syntax of the Brythonic Languages.

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2 The Historical Syntax of the Brythonic Languages

3 The Historical Syntax of the Brythonic Languages : Some Breton and Cornish Evidence

4 The Historical Syntax of the Brythonic Languages : Some Breton and Cornish Evidence Benjamin Bruch 26 th Annual Harvard Celtic Colloquium Barker Center · Harvard University· 7 October 2006

5 A Problem in Brythonic Historical Syntax · Insular Celtic languages tend toward verb-initial word order Old Welsh, Cornish, and Breton are thought to have had VSO word order Middle Welsh, Cornish, and Breton texts rarely have VSO word order in affirmative main clauses, although they use VSO elsewhere Modern Cornish and Breton largely continue the syntax observed in medieval texts Modern Welsh, however, is almost exclusively VSO · Did Welsh change from VSO to non-VSO, and then back again?

6 Explaining Syntactic Change in Welsh · Hypothesis I: Welsh syntax never really changed Non-VSO orders in Middle Welsh represent a literary style that does not reflect actual speech (Mac Cana, Watkins, Fife, King) Non-VSO orders may be derived from foreign (English, French, Latin) influence (Watkins) Non-VSO orders may have spread from south-eastern dialects of Welsh, which subgroup with Breton and Cornish rather than with northern Welsh dialects (Lewis, Mac Cana)

7 Brythonic Languages British Northern Dialects Southern Dialects Pictish (?) Northern British Cornish Breton South- Western British Northern Welsh South-eastern Welsh Southern British Non-VSO VSO

8 Explaining Syntactic Change in Welsh · Hypothesis I: Welsh syntax never really changed Non-VSO orders in Middle Welsh represent a literary style that does not reflect actual speech (Mac Cana, Watkins, Fife, King) Non-VSO orders may be derived from foreign (English, French, Latin) influence (Watkins) Non-VSO orders may have spread from south-eastern dialects of Welsh, which subgroup with Breton and Cornish rather than with northern Welsh dialects (Lewis, Mac Cana) Modern Welsh preserves traces of the non-VSO orders used by speakers of Middle Welsh (Willis, Manning) · Hypothesis II: Middle Welsh was not a VSO language º Verbal particles mi, fe derived from subject pronouns

9 Word Order Typology English : I see the dog.

10 Word Order Typology English : I see the dog. S

11 Word Order Typology English : I see the dog. SV

12 Word Order Typology English : I see the dog. SOV The dog see I.

13 Word Order Typology English : I see the dog. SOV The dog see I. O

14 Word Order Typology English : I see the dog. SOV The dog see I. OV

15 Word Order Typology English : I see the dog. SOV See I the dog. The dog see I. SOV

16 Word Order Typology English : I see the dog. SOV See I the dog. V The dog see I. SOV

17 Word Order Typology English : I see the dog. SOV See I the dog. SV The dog see I. SOV

18 Word Order Typology English : I see the dog. SOV See I the dog. SOV The dog see I. SOV I the dog see.

19 Word Order Typology English : I see the dog. SOV See I the dog. SOV The dog see I. SOV S I the dog see.

20 Word Order Typology English : I see the dog. SOV See I the dog. SOV The dog see I. SOV SO I the dog see.

21 Word Order Typology English : I see the dog. SOV *See I the dog. SOV The dog see I. SOV * SOV I the dog see. * Irish : Feicim Ø an madra. See-1sg the dog.

22 Word Order Typology English : I see the dog. SOV *See I the dog. SOV The dog see I. SOV * SOV I the dog see. * Irish : Feicim Ø an madra. V See-1sg the dog.

23 Word Order Typology English : I see the dog. SOV *See I the dog. SOV The dog see I. SOV * SOV I the dog see. * Irish : Feicim Ø an madra. SV See-1sg the dog.

24 Word Order Typology English : I see the dog. SOV *See I the dog. SOV The dog see I. SOV * SOV I the dog see. * Irish : Feicim Ø an madra. SOV See-1sg the dog.

25 Word Order Typology English : I see the dog. SOV *See I the dog. SOV The dog see I. SOV * SOV I the dog see. * Irish : Mé feiceann an madra. I see the dog. Feicim Ø an madra. SOV See-1sg the dog.

26 Word Order Typology English : I see the dog. SOV *See I the dog. SOV The dog see I. SOV * SOV I the dog see. * Irish : Mé feiceann an madra. S I see the dog. Feicim Ø an madra. SOV See-1sg the dog.

27 Word Order Typology English : I see the dog. SOV *See I the dog. SOV The dog see I. SOV * SOV I the dog see. * Irish : Mé feiceann an madra. SV I see the dog. Feicim Ø an madra. SOV See-1sg the dog.

28 Word Order Typology English : I see the dog. SOV *See I the dog. SOV The dog see I. SOV * SOV I the dog see. * Irish : Mé feiceann an madra. SOV I see the dog. An madra feicim Ø. The dog see-1sg. Feicim Ø an madra. SOV See-1sg the dog.

29 Word Order Typology English : I see the dog. SOV *See I the dog. SOV The dog see I. SOV * SOV I the dog see. * Irish : Mé feiceann an madra. SOV I see the dog. An madra feicim Ø. O The dog see-1sg. Feicim Ø an madra. SOV See-1sg the dog.

30 Word Order Typology English : I see the dog. SOV *See I the dog. SOV The dog see I. SOV * SOV I the dog see. * Irish : Mé feiceann an madra. SOV I see the dog. An madra feicim Ø. OV The dog see-1sg. Feicim Ø an madra. SOV See-1sg the dog.

31 Word Order Typology English : I see the dog. SOV *See I the dog. SOV The dog see I. SOV * SOV I the dog see. * Irish : Mé feiceann an madra. SOV I see the dog. An madra feicim Ø. SOV The dog see-1sg. Feicim Ø an madra. SOV See-1sg the dog. Mé an madra feiceann. I the dog see.

32 Word Order Typology English : I see the dog. SOV *See I the dog. SOV The dog see I. SOV * SOV I the dog see. * Irish : Mé feiceann an madra. SOV I see the dog. An madra feicim Ø. SOV The dog see-1sg. Feicim Ø an madra. SOV See-1sg the dog. S Mé an madra feiceann. I the dog see.

33 Word Order Typology English : I see the dog. SOV *See I the dog. SOV The dog see I. SOV * SOV I the dog see. * Irish : Mé feiceann an madra. SOV I see the dog. An madra feicim Ø. SOV The dog see-1sg. Feicim Ø an madra. SOV See-1sg the dog. SO Mé an madra feiceann. I the dog see.

34 Word Order Typology English : I see the dog. SOV *See I the dog. SOV The dog see I. SOV * SOV I the dog see. * Irish : Mé feiceann an madra. SOV * I see the dog. An madra feicim Ø. SOV * The dog see-1sg. Feicim Ø an madra. SOV See-1sg the dog. SOV Mé an madra feiceann. * I the dog see.

35 Verb-Second Language German : Ich sehe den Hund. I see the dog.

36 Verb-Second Language German : S Ich sehe den Hund. I see the dog.

37 Verb-Second Language German : S V Ich sehe den Hund. I see the dog.

38 Verb-Second Language German : S VO Ich sehe den Hund. I see the dog. Den Hund sehe ich. The dog see I.

39 Verb-Second Language German : S VO Ich sehe den Hund. I see the dog. O Den Hund sehe ich. The dog see I.

40 Verb-Second Language German : S VO Ich sehe den Hund. I see the dog. OV Den Hund sehe ich. The dog see I.

41 Verb-Second Language German : S VO Ich sehe den Hund. I see the dog. OVS Den Hund sehe ich. The dog see I. Jetzt sehe ich den Hund. Now see I the dog.

42 Verb-Second Language German : S VO Ich sehe den Hund. I see the dog. OVS Den Hund sehe ich. The dog see I. X Jetzt sehe ich den Hund. Now see I the dog.

43 Verb-Second Language German : S VO Ich sehe den Hund. I see the dog. OVS Den Hund sehe ich. The dog see I. XV Jetzt sehe ich den Hund. Now see I the dog.

44 Verb-Second Language German : S VO Ich sehe den Hund. I see the dog. OVS Den Hund sehe ich. The dog see I. XVS Jetzt sehe ich den Hund. Now see I the dog.

45 Verb-Second Language German : S VO Ich sehe den Hund. I see the dog. OVS Den Hund sehe ich. The dog see I. XVSO Jetzt sehe ich den Hund. Now see I the dog.

46 Verb-Second Language German : S VO Ich sehe den Hund. I see the dog. OVS Den Hund sehe ich. The dog see I. XVSO Jetzt sehe ich den Hund. Now see I the dog.

47 Verb-Second Language German : S VO Ich sehe den Hund. I see the dog. OVS Den Hund sehe ich. The dog see I. XVSO Jetzt sehe ich den Hund. Now see I the dog.

48 Verb-Second Language German : S VO Ich sehe den Hund. I see the dog. OVS Den Hund sehe ich. The dog see I. XVSO Jetzt sehe ich den Hund. Now see I the dog.

49 Verb-Second Language German : Ich den Hund sehe. I the dog see. S VO Ich sehe den Hund. I see the dog. OVS Den Hund sehe ich. The dog see I. XVSO Jetzt sehe ich den Hund. Now see I the dog.

50 Verb-Second Language German : S Ich den Hund sehe. I the dog see. S VO Ich sehe den Hund. I see the dog. OVS Den Hund sehe ich. The dog see I. XVSO Jetzt sehe ich den Hund. Now see I the dog.

51 Verb-Second Language German : SO Ich den Hund sehe. I the dog see. S VO Ich sehe den Hund. I see the dog. OVS Den Hund sehe ich. The dog see I. XVSO Jetzt sehe ich den Hund. Now see I the dog.

52 Verb-Second Language German : SOV Ich den Hund sehe. I the dog see. S VO Ich sehe den Hund. I see the dog. OVS Den Hund sehe ich. The dog see I. XVSO Jetzt sehe ich den Hund. Now see I the dog.

53 Verb-Second Language German : SOV Ich den Hund sehe. I the dog see. * S VO Ich sehe den Hund. I see the dog. OVS Den Hund sehe ich. The dog see I. XVSO Jetzt sehe ich den Hund. Now see I the dog.

54 Verb-Second Language German : S VO Ich sehe den Hund. I see the dog. OVS Den Hund sehe ich. The dog see I. XVSO Jetzt sehe ich den Hund. Now see I the dog. Du weißt, dass ich den Hund sehe. You know that I the dog see. C

55 Verb-Second Language German : S VO Ich sehe den Hund. I see the dog. OVS Den Hund sehe ich. The dog see I. XVSO Jetzt sehe ich den Hund. Now see I the dog. S Du weißt, dass ich den Hund sehe. You know that I the dog see. C

56 Verb-Second Language German : S VO Ich sehe den Hund. I see the dog. OVS Den Hund sehe ich. The dog see I. XVSO Jetzt sehe ich den Hund. Now see I the dog. SO Du weißt, dass ich den Hund sehe. You know that I the dog see. C

57 Verb-Second Language German : S VO Ich sehe den Hund. I see the dog. OVS Den Hund sehe ich. The dog see I. XVSO Jetzt sehe ich den Hund. Now see I the dog. SOV C Du weißt, dass ich den Hund sehe. You know that I the dog see.

58 Verb-Second Language German : S VO Ich sehe den Hund. I see the dog. OVS Den Hund sehe ich. The dog see I. XVSO Jetzt sehe ich den Hund. Now see I the dog. SOVS C Du weißt, dass ich den Hund sehe. You know that I the dog see.

59 Verb-Second Language German : S VO Ich sehe den Hund. I see the dog. OVS Den Hund sehe ich. The dog see I. XVSO Jetzt sehe ich den Hund. Now see I the dog. SOVSV C Du weißt, dass ich den Hund sehe. You know that I the dog see.

60 Verb-Second Language German : S VO Ich sehe den Hund. I see the dog. OVS Den Hund sehe ich. The dog see I. XVSO Jetzt sehe ich den Hund. Now see I the dog. SOVSV C Du weißt, dass ich den Hund sehe. You know that I the dog see.

61 Verb-Second Language Breton : Me a wel ar chi. I see-3sg the dog.

62 Verb-Second Language Breton : S Me a wel ar chi. I see-3sg the dog.

63 Verb-Second Language Breton : S p V Me a wel ar chi. I see-3sg the dog.

64 Verb-Second Language Breton : S p VO Me a wel ar chi. I see-3sg the dog. Ar chi a welan Ø. The dog see-1sg.

65 Verb-Second Language Breton : S p VO Me a wel ar chi. I see-3sg the dog. O Ar chi a welan Ø. The dog see-1sg.

66 Verb-Second Language Breton : S p VO Me a wel ar chi. I see-3sg the dog. Op V Ar chi a welan Ø. The dog see-1sg.

67 Verb-Second Language Breton : S p VO Me a wel ar chi. I see-3sg the dog. Op VS Ar chi a welan Ø. The dog see-1sg. Bremañ e welan Ø ar chi. Now see-1sg the dog.

68 Verb-Second Language Breton : S p VO Me a wel ar chi. I see-3sg the dog. Op VS Ar chi a welan Ø. The dog see-1sg. X Bremañ e welan Ø ar chi. Now see-1sg the dog.

69 Verb-Second Language Breton : S p VO Me a wel ar chi. I see-3sg the dog. Op VS Ar chi a welan Ø. The dog see-1sg. Xp V Bremañ e welan Ø ar chi. Now see-1sg the dog.

70 Verb-Second Language Breton : S p VO Me a wel ar chi. I see-3sg the dog. Op VS Ar chi a welan Ø. The dog see-1sg. Xp VS Bremañ e welan Ø ar chi. Now see-1sg the dog.

71 Verb-Second Language Breton : S p VO Me a wel ar chi. I see-3sg the dog. Op VS Ar chi a welan Ø. The dog see-1sg. Xp VSO Bremañ e welan Ø ar chi. Now see-1sg the dog. Gwelout a ran Ø ar chi. See-vn do-1sg the dog.

72 Verb-Second Language Breton : S p VO Me a wel ar chi. I see-3sg the dog. Op VS Ar chi a welan Ø. The dog see-1sg. Xp VSO Bremañ e welan Ø ar chi. Now see-1sg the dog. VN Gwelout a ran Ø ar chi. See-vn do-1sg the dog.

73 Verb-Second Language Breton : S p VO Me a wel ar chi. I see-3sg the dog. Op VS Ar chi a welan Ø. The dog see-1sg. Xp VSO Bremañ e welan Ø ar chi. Now see-1sg the dog. VNp V Gwelout a ran Ø ar chi. See-vn do-1sg the dog.

74 Verb-Second Language Breton : S p VO Me a wel ar chi. I see-3sg the dog. Op VS Ar chi a welan Ø. The dog see-1sg. Xp VSO Bremañ e welan Ø ar chi. Now see-1sg the dog. VNp V S Gwelout a ran Ø ar chi. See-vn do-1sg the dog.

75 Verb-Second Language Breton : S p VO Me a wel ar chi. I see-3sg the dog. Op VS Ar chi a welan Ø. The dog see-1sg. Xp VSO Bremañ e welan Ø ar chi. Now see-1sg the dog. VNp V S O Gwelout a ran Ø ar chi. See-vn do-1sg the dog. Ich werde den Hund sehen. I will-1sg the dog see-inf. German :

76 Verb-Second Language Breton : S p VO Me a wel ar chi. I see-3sg the dog. Op VS Ar chi a welan Ø. The dog see-1sg. Xp VSO Bremañ e welan Ø ar chi. Now see-1sg the dog. VNp V S O Gwelout a ran Ø ar chi. See-vn do-1sg the dog. S Ich werde den Hund sehen. I will-1sg the dog see-inf. German :

77 Verb-Second Language Breton : S p VO Me a wel ar chi. I see-3sg the dog. Op VS Ar chi a welan Ø. The dog see-1sg. Xp VSO Bremañ e welan Ø ar chi. Now see-1sg the dog. VNp V S O Gwelout a ran Ø ar chi. See-vn do-1sg the dog. V S Ich werde den Hund sehen. I will-1sg the dog see-inf. German :

78 Verb-Second Language Breton : S p VO Me a wel ar chi. I see-3sg the dog. Op VS Ar chi a welan Ø. The dog see-1sg. Xp VSO Bremañ e welan Ø ar chi. Now see-1sg the dog. VNp V S O Gwelout a ran Ø ar chi. See-vn do-1sg the dog. V S O Ich werde den Hund sehen. I will-1sg the dog see-inf. German :

79 Verb-Second Language Breton : S p VO Me a wel ar chi. I see-3sg the dog. Op VS Ar chi a welan Ø. The dog see-1sg. Xp VSO Bremañ e welan Ø ar chi. Now see-1sg the dog. VNp V S O Gwelout a ran Ø ar chi. See-vn do-1sg the dog. VNV S O Ich werde den Hund sehen. I will-1sg the dog see-inf. German :

80 Verb-Second Language Breton : S p VO Me a wel ar chi. I see-3sg the dog. Op VS Ar chi a welan Ø. The dog see-1sg. Xp VSO Bremañ e welan Ø ar chi. Now see-1sg the dog. VNp V S O Gwelout a ran Ø ar chi. See-vn do-1sg the dog.

81 Verb-Second Language Breton : S p VO Me a wel ar chi. I see-3sg the dog. Op VS Ar chi a welan Ø. The dog see-1sg. Xp VSO Bremañ e welan Ø ar chi. Now see-1sg the dog. VNp V S O Gwelout a ran Ø ar chi. See-vn do-1sg the dog.

82 Verb-Second Language Breton : Gouzout a rez Ø e welan Ø ar chi. Know-vn do-2sg see-1sg the dog.

83 Verb-Second Language Breton : Gouzout a rez Ø e welan Ø ar chi. Know-vn do-2sg see-1sg the dog. p V

84 Verb-Second Language Breton : Gouzout a rez Ø e welan Ø ar chi. Know-vn do-2sg see-1sg the dog. Sp V

85 Verb-Second Language Breton : O Gouzout a rez Ø e welan Ø ar chi. Know-vn do-2sg see-1sg the dog. Sp V

86 Verb-Second Language Breton : VN O Gouzout a rez Ø e welan Ø ar chi. Know-vn do-2sg see-1sg the dog. Sp V

87 Verb-Second Language Breton : VNp V O Gouzout a rez Ø e welan Ø ar chi. Know-vn do-2sg see-1sg the dog. Sp V

88 Verb-Second Language Breton : VNp VS O Gouzout a rez Ø e welan Ø ar chi. Know-vn do-2sg see-1sg the dog. Ne welan ket Ø ar chi. Neg see-1sg not the dog. Sp V

89 Verb-Second Language Breton : VNp VS O Gouzout a rez Ø e welan Ø ar chi. Know-vn do-2sg see-1sg the dog. p V Ne welan ket Ø ar chi. Neg see-1sg not the dog. Sp V

90 Verb-Second Language Breton : VNp VS O Gouzout a rez Ø e welan Ø ar chi. Know-vn do-2sg see-1sg the dog. p V S Ne welan ket Ø ar chi. Neg see-1sg not the dog. Sp V

91 Verb-Second Language Breton : VNp VS O Gouzout a rez Ø e welan Ø ar chi. Know-vn do-2sg see-1sg the dog. p V S O Ne welan ket Ø ar chi. Neg see-1sg not the dog. Sp V · Conjugated verb preceded by particle · Third-person singular agreement in SVO order · Subject pronoun may be deleted after a conjugated verb · Verb-second rule only applies in affirmative main clauses Breton V2 vs. German V2 :

92 Verb-Second Language Breton : VNp VS O Gouzout a rez Ø e welan Ø ar chi. Know-vn do-2sg see-1sg the dog. p V S O Ne welan ket Ø ar chi. Neg see-1sg not the dog. Sp V · Verb-second rule only applies in affirmative main clauses · Conjugated verb preceded by particle · Third-person singular agreement in SVO order · Subject pronoun may be deleted after a conjugated verb Breton V2 vs. German V2 :

93 Verb-Second Language Breton : VNp VS O Gouzout a rez Ø e welan Ø ar chi. Know-vn do-2sg see-1sg the dog. p V S O Ne welan ket Ø ar chi. Neg see-1sg not the dog. Sp V · XVSO, VVSO orders predominate; OVS also found · Conjugated verb preceded by particle · Third-person singular agreement in SVO order Breton V2 vs. French SVO : · VSO order is used in most negative and subordinate clauses

94 Verb-Second in Welsh The Abnormal Order : Hwy a welsant y mab bychan… They saw-3pl the little boy… (Matt. 2: 11)

95 Verb-Second in Welsh The Abnormal Order : S Hwy a welsant y mab bychan… They saw-3pl the little boy… (Matt. 2: 11)

96 Verb-Second in Welsh The Abnormal Order : S p V Hwy a welsant y mab bychan… They saw-3pl the little boy… (Matt. 2: 11)

97 Verb-Second in Welsh The Abnormal Order : S p VO Hwy a welsant y mab bychan… They saw-3pl the little boy… Eglwysi eraill a ysbeiliais Ø. Other churches plundered-1sg. (Matt. 2: 11) (2 Cor. 11: 8)

98 Verb-Second in Welsh The Abnormal Order : S p VO Hwy a welsant y mab bychan… They saw-3pl the little boy… O Eglwysi eraill a ysbeiliais Ø. Other churches plundered-1sg. (Matt. 2: 11) (2 Cor. 11: 8)

99 Verb-Second in Welsh The Abnormal Order : S p VO Hwy a welsant y mab bychan… They saw-3pl the little boy… O p V Eglwysi eraill a ysbeiliais Ø. Other churches plundered-1sg. (Matt. 2: 11) (2 Cor. 11: 8)

100 Verb-Second in Welsh The Abnormal Order : S p VO Hwy a welsant y mab bychan… They saw-3pl the little boy… O p VS Eglwysi eraill a ysbeiliais Ø. Other churches plundered-1sg. Ar bore yr aeth Jonathan ir maes. And in the morning went-3sg Jonathan to the field. (Matt. 2: 11) (2 Cor. 11: 8) (1 Sam. 20: 35)

101 Verb-Second in Welsh The Abnormal Order : S p VO Hwy a welsant y mab bychan… They saw-3pl the little boy… O p VS Eglwysi eraill a ysbeiliais Ø. Other churches plundered-1sg. X Ar bore yr aeth Jonathan ir maes. And in the morning went-3sg Jonathan to the field. (Matt. 2: 11) (2 Cor. 11: 8) (1 Sam. 20: 35)

102 Verb-Second in Welsh The Abnormal Order : S p VO Hwy a welsant y mab bychan… They saw-3pl the little boy… O p VS Eglwysi eraill a ysbeiliais Ø. Other churches plundered-1sg. Xp V Ar bore yr aeth Jonathan ir maes. And in the morning went-3sg Jonathan to the field. (Matt. 2: 11) (2 Cor. 11: 8) (1 Sam. 20: 35)

103 Verb-Second in Welsh The Abnormal Order : S p VO Hwy a welsant y mab bychan… They saw-3pl the little boy… O p VS Eglwysi eraill a ysbeiliais Ø. Other churches plundered-1sg. Xp VSPP Ar bore yr aeth Jonathan ir maes. And in the morning went-3sg Jonathan to the field. Ofni yn ddirfawr a wnaethant Ø. Become extremely frightened-vn did-3pl. (Matt. 2: 11) (2 Cor. 11: 8) (1 Sam. 20: 35) (Luke 2: 9)

104 Verb-Second in Welsh The Abnormal Order : S p VO Hwy a welsant y mab bychan… They saw-3pl the little boy… O p VS Eglwysi eraill a ysbeiliais Ø. Other churches plundered-1sg. Xp VSPP Ar bore yr aeth Jonathan ir maes. And in the morning went-3sg Jonathan to the field. VN Ofni yn ddirfawr a wnaethant Ø. Become extremely frightened-vn did-3pl. (Matt. 2: 11) (2 Cor. 11: 8) (1 Sam. 20: 35) (Luke 2: 9)

105 Verb-Second in Welsh The Abnormal Order : S p VO Hwy a welsant y mab bychan… They saw-3pl the little boy… O p VS Eglwysi eraill a ysbeiliais Ø. Other churches plundered-1sg. Xp VSPP Ar bore yr aeth Jonathan ir maes. And in the morning went-3sg Jonathan to the field. VNp V Ofni yn ddirfawr a wnaethant Ø. Become extremely frightened-vn did-3pl. (Matt. 2: 11) (2 Cor. 11: 8) (1 Sam. 20: 35) (Luke 2: 9)

106 Verb-Second in Welsh The Abnormal Order : S p VO Hwy a welsant y mab bychan… They saw-3pl the little boy… O p VS Eglwysi eraill a ysbeiliais Ø. Other churches plundered-1sg. Xp VSPP Ar bore yr aeth Jonathan ir maes. And in the morning went-3sg Jonathan to the field. VNp V S Ofni yn ddirfawr a wnaethant Ø. Become extremely frightened-vn did-3pl. (Matt. 2: 11) (2 Cor. 11: 8) (1 Sam. 20: 35) (Luke 2: 9)

107 SVO Orders in Welsh and Breton Welsh Abnormal Order Hwy a welsant… They saw-3pl Hwy a welodd… They saw-3sg Welsh Mixed Order

108 SVO Orders in Welsh and Breton Welsh Abnormal Order Welsh Mixed Order Ef a welodd… He saw-3sg Ef a welodd… He saw-3sg

109 SVO Orders in Welsh and Breton Welsh Abnormal Order Hwy a welsant… They saw-3pl Y dyn ny doeth… The man neg came-3sg Hwy a welodd… They saw-3sg Nyt y dyn a đoeth… Neg-cop the man came-3sg Welsh Mixed Order Breton SVO Order Int a wel… They see-3sg An den ne zeu ket… The man neg come-3sg

110 SVO Orders in Welsh and Breton Welsh Abnormal Order Hwy a welsant… They saw-3pl Y dyn ny doeth… The man neg came-3sg Hwy a welodd… They saw-3sg Nyt y dyn a đoeth… Neg-cop the man came-3sg Welsh Mixed Order Breton SVO Order Int a wel… They see-3sg An den ne zeu ket… The man neg come-3sg Int eo a wel… They cop see-3sg Neo ket an den a zeu… Neg-cop the man come-3sg Breton Cleft Order

111 SVO Orders in Welsh and Breton Welsh Abnormal Order Hwy a welsant… They saw-3pl Y dyn ny doeth… The man neg came-3sg Nyt y dyn a đoeth… Neg-cop the man came-3sg Welsh Mixed Order Breton SVO Order Int a wel… They see-3sg An den ne zeu ket… The man neg come-3sg Int eo a wel… They cop see-3sg Neo ket an den a zeu… Neg-cop the man come-3sg Breton Cleft Order Ys hwy a welodd… Cop they saw-3sg

112 SVO to VSO in Welsh (after Willis) Middle Welsh : Mi a welaf I see-1sg (Mi) ni welaf (I) neg see-1sg Breton : Mi welaf (fi) Agr see-1sg (I) Mi welaf Ni welaf (fi) Neg see-1sg (I) I see-1sg (fi) (I) (Mi) welaf (fi) Aff see-1sg (I) (Mi) weli (di) Aff see-2sg (you) Modern Welsh : Pronoun Cornish : Me a wel I see-3sg My a wel I see-3sg Pronoun Complementizer Verbal Particle

113 Conclusions · Middle Welsh, Cornish, and Breton are verb-second languages V2 is limited to affirmative main clauses Brythonic V2 uses word orders and agreement rules that differ from those of English, French, or Latin · Subject-verb agreement in Middle Welsh led to loss of V2 Most other types of clauses are VSO · This V2 word order is probably not due to foreign influence Brythonic V2 is weaker than German V2 · Breton and Cornish do not feature subject-verb agreement in SVO sentences and so could not lose V2 as easily as Welsh º V2 occurs in fewer clause types º VSO word order in subordinate clauses makes the V2 rule harder to acquire (Willis)

114 The Historical Syntax of the Brythonic Languages : Some Breton and Cornish Evidence Benjamin Bruch 26 th Annual Harvard Celtic Colloquium Barker Center · Harvard University · 7 October 2006


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