Presentation on theme: "UNIT-II ENGINEERING ETHICS"— Presentation transcript:
1 UNIT-II ENGINEERING ETHICS Senses of ‘Engineering Ethics’ – Variety of moral issues – Types of inquiry – Moral dilemmas – Moral Autonomy – Kohlberg’s theory – Gilligan’s theory – Consensus and Controversy – Professions and Professionalism – Professional Ideals and Virtues – Uses of Ethical Theories
2 WHAT IS ENGINEERING ETHICS? The study of moral issues and decisions confronting individuals and organizations involved in engineering.The study of related questions about moral ideals, character, policies and relationships of people and organizations involved in technological activity.ETHICS- moral principles that govern a person's or group's behavior.
3 ETHICS AND ENGINEERING Where the ethical issues can arise:Conceptualization, Design, Testing, Manufacturing, Sales, ServiceSupervision and Project TeamsProject timelines and budgetsExpectations, opinions, or judgmentsProducts: Unsafe or Less than UsefulDesigned for obsolescenceInferior materials or componentsUnforeseen harmful effects to society
4 ETHICS AND ENGINEERING Impacts of an engineer’s ethical decisions:The Products & Services (safety and utility)The Company and its StockholdersThe Public and Society (benefits to the people)Environment (Earth and beyond)The Profession (how the public views it)The Law (how legislation affects the profession and industry)Personal Position (job, internal moral conflict)
5 SENSES OF ETHICSEthics is an activity and area of inquiry. It is the activity of understanding moral values, resolving moral issues and the area of study resulting from that activity.When we speak of ethical problems, issues and controversies, we mean to distinguish them from non moral problems.Ethics is used to refer to the particular set of beliefs, attitudes and habits that a person or group displays concerning moralities.Ethics and its grammatical variants can be used as synonyms for morally correct.
6 WHAT IS MORALITY? The term ‘morality’ concerns with (a) what ought or ought not to be done in a given situation?(b) what is right or wrong in handling it?(c) what is good or bad about the persons, policies and principles involved in it?If an action is said to be morally right it should had some moral reasons.
7 MORAL REASONS Moral reasons include Respecting others and ourselves, Respecting the rights of others,Keeping promises,Avoiding unnecessary problems to othersAvoiding cheating and dishonesty,Showing gratitude to others and encourage them to work
8 VARIETIES OF MORAL ISSUES MICRO-ETHICS This approach stresses more about some typical and everyday problems which play an important role in the field of engineering and in the profession of an engineerMACRO-ETHICS This approach deals with all the social problems which are unknown and suddenly burst out on a regional or national level.
9 Where and How do Moral Problems arise in Engineering? Inspite of the engineers’ full attention and care, sometimes the product or project may be unsafe or less useful.This may be due to some reasons1) The product or project may be designed for early obsolescence2) Due to under pressure because of running out of time, budgetary etc3) By ignorance on the size of the project4) Because of the large number of a products sold on the mass market, people may be affected.
10 TYPES OF INQUIRYInquiry means an investigation- Engineering ethics involves investigations into values, meaning and facts. 1. Normative Inquiries 2. Conceptual Inquiries 3. Factual or Descriptive Inquiries
11 NORMATIVE INQUIRIESThese are meant for identifying and justifying some norms and standards of morally desirable nature for guiding individuals as well as groups. 1. How do the obligations of engineers protect the public safety in given situations? 2. When should an engineer have to alarm their employers on dangerous practices? 3. Where are the laws and organizational procedures that affect engineering practice on moral issues? 4. Where are the moral rights essential for engineers to fulfill their professional obligations?
12 CONCEPTUAL INQUIRIESThese are meant for describing the meaning of concepts, principles, and issues related to Engineering Ethics.What is the safety and how it is related to risk?What does it mean when codes of ethics say engineers should protect the safety, health and welfare of the public?What is a ‘bribe’?What is a ‘profession’ and ‘professional’?
13 FACTUAL / DESCRIPTIVE INQUIRIES These help to provide facts for understanding and finding solutions to value based issues.The engineer has to conduct factual inquiries by using scientific techniques.These help to provide information regarding the business realities such as engineering practice, history of engineering profession, the effectiveness of professional societies, the procedures to be adopted when assessing risks and psychological profiles of engineers.
14 MORAL DILEMMA Why study engineering ethics? Engineering ethics is not only teaching moral behaviour in knowing about immoral and amoral in a set of beliefs, but also increasing the ability of engineers and other professionals to face boldly with the moral problems arising from technological advancements, changes and other related activities.
15 MORAL DILEMMADilemmas are certain kind of situations in which a difficult choice has to be made.Moral dilemmas have two or more foldings - moral obligations, duties, rights, goods or ideals come into disagreement with each other.One moral principle can have two or more conflicting applications for a particular given situation.
16 TYPES OF COMPLEXITIES Vagueness- தெளிவற்ற Conflicting reasons- முரண்பாடான காரணங்கள்Disagreement-கருத்து வேறுபாடு
17 STEPS / PROCEDURES IN FACING MORAL DILEMMAS 1) Identifying the relevant moral factors and reasons: i.e. Finding solutions for (i) the conflicting responsibilities (ii) the competing rights and (iii) the clashing ideals involved. 2) Collecting and gathering all the available facts which are relevant to the moral factors while resolving. 3) Ranking the moral considerations or principles on the basis of importance as applicable to the situation. 4) Considering alternative courses of action for resolving the problems and tracing the full implications of each. i.e. conducting factual inquiries. 5) Having talked with the colleagues, friend about the problem getting their suggestions and alternative ideas on resolving that dilemma. 6) Arriving at a careful and reasonable judgment or solution by taking into consideration of all important moral factors and reasons on the basis of the facts or truths.
18 MORAL AUTONOMYAutonomy means self-governing or self-determining i.e act independently.Moral autonomy means the right or the wrong conduct which is of independent on ethical issues.Moral autonomy is concerned with the independent attitude of a person related to ethical issues.It helps to improve the self-determination among the individuals.
19 SKILLS FOR IMPROVING MORAL AUTONOMY Ability to distinguish and relate these moral problems with the problems of law, economics, religions principles etc.Possess the skills of understanding, clarifying and assessing the arguments which are against the moral issues.Ability to suggest the solutions to moral issues, on the basis of facts. These suggestions must be consistent and must include all the aspects of the problem.Must have the imaginative skill to view the problems from all view points and also be able to suggest a proper alternative solution.Able to tolerate while giving moral judgments and decisions which may cause trouble. i.e. they have to understand the difficulties in making moral decisions.
20 SKILLS FOR IMPROVING MORAL AUTONOMY Must have adequate knowledge and understanding about the use of ethical language so as to defend or support their views with others.Must have some better knowledge in understanding the importance of suggestions and better solutions while resolving moral problems and also about the importance of tolerance on some critical situations.Must understand the importance of maintaining the moral honesty.
21 CONSENSUS AND CONTROVERSY Consensus – AgreementControversy – Disagreement
22 PROFESSIONS AND PROFESSIONALISM What is a profession?‘JOB’ or ‘OCCUPATION’ that meets the following criteria from which a person earns his living.KnowledgeOrganizationPublic goodWho is a professional? Obviously a member of a profession.
23 DIFFERING VIEWS ON PROFESSIONALS ‘Only consulting engineers who are basically independent and have freedom from coercion can be called as professionals.’ -Robert L.Whitelaw‘Professionals have to meet the expectations of clients and employers. Professional restraints are to be imposed by only laws and government regulations and not by personal conscience.’ -Samuel Florman‘Engineers are professionals when they 1) attain standards of achievement in education, job performance or creativity in engineering and 2) accept the most basic moral responsibilities to the public as well as employers, clients, colleagues and subordinates.’ -Mike Martin & Roland Schinzinger
24 MODELS OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS SAVIOR: a person who saves someone or something (especially a country or cause) from dangerGUARDIAN: Engineers know, the directions in which and pace at which, technology should develop.BUREAUCRATIC SERVANT: The engineer as the loyal organization person uses special skills to solve problems.
25 MODELS OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS SOCIAL SERVANT: Engineers, in co-operation with management, have the task of receiving society’s directives and satisfying society’s desires.SOCIAL ENABLER AND CATALYST: Engineers play a vital role beyond mere compliance with orders. They help management and society understand their own needs and to make informed decisions.GAME PLAYER: Engineers are neither servants nor masters of anyone. They play by the economic game rules that happen to be in effect at a given time.
26 TYPES OF ETHICAL THEORIES TYPES BASED ONVirtue ethics-Virtues and vicesUtilitarianism-Most good for most peopleDuty ethics-Duties to respect personsRights ethics-Human Rights
27 FOUR MAIN VIRTUES (நல்லொழுக்கங்கள்) Prudence (விவேகம்): to think about a moral problem clearly and completelyTemperance (தன்னடக்கம்): control attraction to positive emotionsFortitude (மனோபலம்): control aversion for negative emotionsJustice (நீதி): choose according to truth and fairness.
28 PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY Responsibilities based onSELF DIRECTION VIRTUESPUBLIC SPIRITED VIRTUESTEAMWORK VIRTUESPROFICIENCY VIRTUES
29 UTILITARIANISM Three approaches: Cost/benefit – quantifiable approach. Maximize positive utilities (benefits) against negative utilities (costs).Act utilitarian – ‘Will the course of action produce more good than any alternative course of action that I could take’?Rule utilitarian – ‘Would utility be maximized if everyone did the same thing in the same circumstances’? Adoption of commonly accepted rules.
30 DUTY ETHICS (Immanuel Kant’s view) be honestkeep promisesdo not inflict sufferings on other peoplebe fairmake reparation when you have been unfairhow gratitude for kindness extended by othersseek to improve own intelligence and characterdevelop one’s talentsdon’t commit suicide
31 RIGHTS ETHICS (JOHN LOCKE – 1632-1704) Everyone has inherent moral rightsEveryone has rights that arise from EXISTINGOther rights arise as a Consequence.Duties arise because people have rights, not vice versa.Any act that violates an individual’s moral rights is ethically unacceptable.Rights ethics was highly individualistic.
32 EVALUATION OF ETHICAL THEORIES The theory must be clear and formulated with concepts that are coherent and applicable.It must be internally consistent in that none of its tenets contradicts any other.Neither the theory nor its defense can rely upon false information.It must be sufficiently comprehensive to provide guidance in specific situations.It must be compatible with our most carefully considered moral convictions about concrete situations.
33 USES OF ETHICAL THEORIES Ethical theories aid in identifying the moral considerations or reasons that constitute a dilemma.They provide a precise sense of what kinds of information are relevant to solving moral development.They sometimes, offer ways to rank the relevant moral considerations in order of importance and provide a rough guidance in solving moral problems.The theories help us identify the full moral ramifications of alternative courses of action, urging a wide perspective on the moral implications of the options and providing a systematic framework of comparing alternatives.The theories augment the precision with which we use moral terms and they provide frame works for moral reasoning when discussing moral issues with colleagues.By providing frame works for development of moral arguments, the theories strengthen our ability to reach balanced and insightful judgments.