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Project Management Skills Workshop

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1 Project Management Skills Workshop
United Nations Project Management Skills Workshop (2 days) 1

2 Outputs of this Workshop
At the end of the training, participants know: How to link new projects to the UN’s mandate and strategic framework The concept of the Project / Programme Management Cycle How to prepare projects for implementation – using the “results-chain” as a tool (see also “Logical Framework Matrix”) How these concepts apply to the Monitoring and Evaluation of projects

3 Expected Accomplishment and Overall Objective of the Workshop
This is supposed to…: Increase the quality of your projects … which in the end is meant to: Help to improve the performance of the UN overall

4 Exercise 1: Introduction
What is the point strategic project planning? 4

5 The context of our projects....
Where our project (and the programme) are meant to help our organisation to fulfil its mission United Nations (Your Organisation) The programme it belongs to Where the benefits of an individual project are meant to complement the benefits of other projects Our Project Projects are used to create products and deliver business benefit 5 Martin Steinmeyer

6 You need to make sure that....
United Nations (Your Organisation) The programme it belongs to ... But really here!!! Our Project .. your project is not here... 6 Martin Steinmeyer

7 You also need to make sure that....
... your project really has a chance of solving the problem you mean to address... United Nations(Your Organisation) The programme it belongs to Our Project ... and thereby contributes to the objectives and mandates of the United Nations 7 Martin Steinmeyer

8 Characteristics of a Project
Has a defined start and an end; Has agreed, and well defined outputs and produces measurable effects (expected accomplishments); Has a balance between time, cost and quality; Has interrelated tasks, often grouped into phases; Has a temporary, often multidisciplinary project team brought together for the project; Might entail the involvement of people from other units or organizations. 8

9 The Project Context Organisational Politics Stakeholder Objectives
External Pressures Time Cost Quality 9

10 Project Management Structuring and facilitation of processes of change in order to produce outputs and accomplishments in the most effective and efficient way. Dealing with complexity and uncertainties related to the context and to human interactions; Dealing with the subjective perceptions and values of actors involved; Continuous collection and analysis of information, in order to take decisions and to make adaptations to achieve quality outputs.

11 The Project Management Cycle
Concept Phase Project Charter Development Phase Evaluation Phase Project Document Implementation Phase 11

12 Concept Phase Project Identification
Develop „Intervention Logic“ (how will project address the problem?) Project Identification Scope the Project Assemble Project Team Identify and analyse stakeholders Project Finance Risk Management The Project Charter Identify the problem to be addressed Concept Phase 12

13 Introducing: the Intervention Logic
United Nations Mandate Multi-annual strategic framework High level objectives to which the project contributes The main result of the project / main benefit to target group The (tangible) products of undertaken activities Tasks executed as part of the project to produce the project’s outputs Overall / Goal Objectives Expected Accomplishment Physical and non physical means necessary to undertake activities Outputs Activities Inputs Martin Steinmeyer

14 Levels of the Intervention Logic – Example
United Nations Mandate Multi-annual strategic framework Access to urban water and sanitation in Country X expanded Improved management of water-related services by municipal water utility in capital Maintenance scheme, Improved staff capacity, Improved procurement, etc. Staff needs assessment and training, developing procurement guidelines, etc. Overall Goal / Objectives Expected Accomplishment Money, human resources, materials, equipment Outputs Activities Inputs Martin Steinmeyer

15 Intervention logic during “planning” and “implementation”
United Nations Mandate Multi-annual strategic framework Overall Goal / Objectives Planning Expected Accomplishment Implementation Money, human resources, materials, equipment Outputs Activities Inputs Martin Steinmeyer

16 Scoping the Project- example (i)
In Scope of this project management skills workshop will be: Provision of practical tools, techniques and methods to manage projects; Use of harmonized terminology (with RBB) Refresher programme for some –new information for others; Work with ‘real life’ projects; A workshop manual and handouts; Work in plenary as well as small group sessions.

17 Scoping the Project- example (ii)
Out of Scope of this project management skills workshop are: Project finance and bids Project management software Management of project teams, teambuilding exercises and methods.

18 Exercise: The first approach to your project
In your groups, please: Clarify the background & the problem(s) the project is meant to address Draft a first version of your project’s intervention logic: The Overall Goal / Objective The Expected Accomplishment The Outputs The Activities Define / refine the scope of your project (borderline cases) Martin Steinmeyer

19 Objectives (i) 19

20 Programme, Project, Component…

21 Stakeholders (i) ...are any individual/s, groups of people,
institutions or firms that may have a relationship with the project. They may – directly or indirectly, positively or negatively – affect or be affected by the process and the outcomes of the project. 21

22 UN Project Management Training: Stakeholders Staff Development Unit
Stakeholder Analysis Rest of the Organisation Finance Department Staff UN Project Management Training: Stakeholders Project Managers Staff Development Unit Trainer Team 22

23 Stakeholders (ii) Beneficiaries:
Those who benefit from the implementation of the project Target group/s The group/entity who will be immediately and positively affected by the project (outcome level) Project Partners: Those who help to implement the project (output level) And finally: “Troublemakers”: Those who can give you grief... 23

24 Stakeholder Analysis List all relevant stakeholders.
Who is the target group? Who are the beneficiaries? Who are the project partners? Who might have a positive/negative impact on the project? Who might be affected by the project negatively? 24

25 Stakeholder Analysis (i)

26 Stakeholder Analysis (iiii) Identifying Stakeholder Expectations
They want and We Want: They Want but We Don‘t: We Want but They Don‘t: 26

27 Stakeholder Analysis (ii)
Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats 27

28 Group Exercise: Stakeholder Analysis
In your groups, please: Brainstorm and list all relevant stakeholders Pick two (2) of our three (3) analysis tools (map, matrix, SWOT) and apply to your project Determine for your project Who is / are the target group/s for your project? Who can you use as project partners? Who are potential "troublemakers"? Consider: What changes to your original project design should you make? Martin Steinmeyer

29 Stakeholder Analysis (i)
X Z F C A M B Q Venn diagram: the size of the circle depicts the influence of the stakeholder; the closeness or distance of the circles depict the relationships between the stakeholders 29

30 Stakeholder Analysis (iii)
Rank your stakeholders along this continuum: Totally supportive Strongly Against Neutral Moderately Moderately Against X Q Z A Y 30

31 Risk Assessment Matrix
IMPACT/ PROBABILITY Impact 4: major Impact 3: medium Impact 2: low Impact 1: insignificant Probability A: almost certain Probability B: likely Probability C: moderate Probability D: almost zero 31

32 Identifying Responses to Risks
Prince 2 Risk Response Categories: Prevention: Eliminate source of risk, stop risk from happening Reduction: Reduce probability of risk happening Acceptance: Deciding to “do nothing” about a risk Contingency: Prepare for risk to happen by identifying contingent time, money, actions Transference: Give risk to someone else, e.g. insurance company, contractor

33 Group Exercise: Risk Analysis
In your groups, please: Brainstorm on the main risks your project is facing Develop a Risk Assessment Matrix for your project Decide how you will manage the identified risks in your project, using the 5 risk response categories Martin Steinmeyer

34 The Project Charter A Project Charter is a concise and clear framework that summarizes the work done in the concept phase of the project. It is a presentation format for project proposals. Project proposals are budget proposals. 34

35 Checklist for Drawing Up a Project Charter
What is the organisational rationale for the project? Are the project objectives (outputs and expected accomplishment) clear and unambiguous? What actions need to be done? Who is going to do them? What resources are required? What is not going to be done?  Is everything feasible and realistic`? Are outputs, expected accomplishment and obcectives „measurable“? If so what measures should be used? 35

36 Project Charter (example)
Project Name: Background / Problem to be addressed: Intervention Logic (Project Objectives, Expected Accomplishment and Outputs): Scope (point out „borderline issues“): Team/ Resource roles: Who does what? Project Risk Assessment: Which ones have we anticipated? How are we planning to react to the major risks (design!!!) (Project Milestones: What needs to happen when? Include project review dates in this section) (Achievement Measurement: How will we know if we‘ve succeeded?) 36

37 Project Proposal: quality criteria (example)
Relevance relates to whether the project addresses the real problems of the intended beneficiaries. Feasibility relates to whether the project objectives can be effectively achieved. Sustainability relates to whether project benefits will continue to flow after the external support has ended. ? 37

38 Group Exercise: Drafting the “Project Charter”
In your groups, please prepare your projects for presentation to “the board”: Review the project design against the three quality criteria (relevance, feasibility, sustainability) Make adjustments where necessary Fill the different sections of the project charter (Project Name, Background, “Intervention Logic”, Scope) Agree on who should present the project concept to “the board” (4 minutes of presentation) Martin Steinmeyer

39 The Development Phase Planning Resources: People Material Equipment
Money Refine the scope to balance T/C/Q (develop the log-frame matrix) List tasks and activities in relevant sequence Develop an efficient schedule and budget for resources People Ensure approval of plans by relevant stakeholders Review/ Audit The Development Phase 39

40 The Logical Framework Matrix (LogFrame)
Intervention Logic Sources of Verification Assumptions (Risks) Indicators Overall Goal / Objective Expected Accomplishment Outputs Activities Means Cost Status Quo ‘... IF results are delivered, AND assumptions hold true, THEN the project purpose will be achieved ...’ Martin Steinmeyer

41 LogFrame: Planning & Management Tool
Activity and resource scheduling LogFrame Results-based workplans & budgets 5500 1750 4250 750 400 1100 3100 Budget Salaries Allowances Vehicle Op. Office Tel/Fax Seeds Fertiliser Workplan Martin Steinmeyer

42 Scheduling Scheduling aims at producing a sequence for the activities to be carried out to meet the project key dates and objectives - and forms the basis for planning resources and for monitoring. Break down main activities into tasks and subtasks Think about dependencies 42

43 Diagrams to Show the Order of Project Tasks: Network Diagrams
Task C Task D Task B Task A Task D Task C Task B Task A 43

44 Diagrams to Show Order of Project Tasks
Tasks can be related in different ways: Finish to Start : The end of the predecessor and the start of the successor are related. Task A Task B Example: Task B cannot start until task A has finished. Start to Start : The starts of predecessor and successor are related. Task A Task B Example: Task B can start at the same time/ shortly after the start of task A. 44

45 Diagrams to Show Order of Project Tasks
Tasks can be related in different ways: Finish to Finish : The ends of predecessor and succesor are related Task A Task B Example: Task B can finish at the same time/ shortly after Task B has finished. In addition lead-time before an activity as well as lag-time after an activity can be defined 45

46 Critical Path Method The Critical Path Method displays activities and events of a project graphically as a network. It helps to identify which activities are critical to maintaining the schedule (those lying on the „critical path“) – and which are not. 46

47 Critical Path Analysis
Analysis and planning steps: Identify and list all (sub)activities Determine the duration of each (sub)activity Identify the sequence in which the (sub)activities have to be carried out (predecessor) – and their interdependence Draw the diagram (nodes and arrows –an „activity on arrow“ diagram) Identify the critical path 47

48 An Example for CPM Activity Duration Required Predecessor A
Design guide on history teaching 5 months None B Identify schools to participate in testing of the new guide. 1 month C Translate preliminary guide 2 months D Print and distribute guide to pilot schools. 3 months A, B E xxxx F Train sample of trainers G yyyyy 4 months H zzzz B,E I oooo J Write project report F,G,I 48

49 CPM Diagram: An Example
1 2 5 4 7 8 3 6 A 5m B 1m E 2m D 3m C 2m G 4m F 3m J 1m H 2m I 1m The critical path is the path that takes longest. Delays of the activities on this path will cause the project to be delayed. 49 Adapted from Baker, S.L.

50 Gantt Charts Gantt charts are another technique that can be used for scheduling. They are bar graphs that help plan and monitor project development or resource allocation on a horizontal time scale. 50

51 Gantt Charts In general, Gantt charts indicate the exact (planned & actual) duration of a specific task, but they can also be used to indicate the relationships between the tasks (inter-/ dependence), planned and actual completion dates, cost of each task, the person/s responsible for each task and the respective milestones. 51

52 Working with Milestones
Milestones are important, clearly defined events in the course of a project that are of particular interest for the project manager.They represent the project progress and are supposed to take place on a specific date. „Milestones are events of particular importance.“ E.g. the end of a task, a decision taken, end of a project phase, etc. – it is the project manager who has to decide what is an „event of particular importance“. 52

53 Milestone Trend Analysis
Milestones can be used to monitor project progress and identify trends. Steps for a milestone trend analysis: Define milestones in terms of „content“ and date Review milestones periodically verifying the schedule Estimate new, likely dates for milestones, if necessary Enter milestone dates in the chart Comment on deviations Think about possible consequences of and remedial action for deviations from plan 53

54 Milestone Trend Analysis
01.01. 01.04. 01.07. 01.09. Reporting Milestone Ascending line: target date delayed Straight line: target date as planned Descending line: target date earlier than planned 54

55 The Implementation Phase
Motivate/ lead and manage the team Fully mobilise all/ relevant/ appropriate project activities Monitor and Control – as appropriate Problem Solving Don‘t Forget Risk Management Review Progress – And Audit Ensure organisation and communication are current and timely The Implementation Phase 55

56 The Close Out Phase Finish Work Hand Over to Operations
Negotiate Settlements (tie up loose ends) Evaluate and Review Hand Over to Operations The Close Out Phase 56

57 The Purpose of Monitoring and Evaluation
Information Accountability Learning Legitimacy Stockmann/CEval

58 M&E throughout the life of a project
Desired situation Sustained benefits and impact PROJECT ...monitoring Time Present situation: ex-ante evaluation Ex-post or impact evaluation End-of project or final evaluation Mid-term Evaluation Martin Steinmeyer 34

59 Complementary role of Monitoring (M) & Evaluation (E)
Clarifies program objectives Links activities and their resources to objectives Translates objectives into performance indicators and sets targets Routinely collects data on these indicators, compares actual results with targets Reports progress to managers and alerts them to problems Evaluation Analyses why intended results were (not) achieved Assesses causal contributions of activities to results Examines implementation process Explores unintended results Provides lessons, highlights significant accomplishments and offers recommendations for improvements Martin Steinmeyer

60 Criteria for Evaluating Development Assistance
Our Project: Waking people up (with a big bang) Impact Did people we woke up did useful things we hoped they would do? Did others join in? “Worth” of an activity Effectiveness Efficiency Relevance Sustainability Did we wake people up? How many? How cheap was the bang? Were there cheaper bangs around? Did people want (or need) to be woken up in the first place? When we stopped making noise, did people keep on doing this, or did they fall back asleep?

61 Evaluation Criteria and the LogFrame
Evaluation criteria & logframe levels Overall goals /objectives Expected Accomplishment Outputs Activities Means allocation action utilisation change Problematic Situation impact effectiveness sustainability efficiency Relevance kästchen ändern relevance Martin Steinmeyer

62 Developing Indicators
What is an Indicator Quantitative or qualitative factor or variable that provides simple and reliable means to measure achievement, to reflect changes connected to an intervention, or to help assess performance of an actor. Example: Change of # of qualified and experienced teachers per 1000 children of primary-school age in area X in one year Martin Steinmeyer

63 What makes a good indicator?
It must be verifiable by the evaluator and a third party It must be linked to the results intended or to significant changes in the situation It must be manageable to collect, present and to track over time Some also want indicators to be „S.M.A.R.T“: Specific, Measureable, Achievable, Relevant, Timebound Martin Steinmeyer

64 S.M.A.R.T Indicators Specific: Indicator is clearly stated, focused on result to be measured and described as “change” Measurable / Monitorable: possible to collect information to decide if Indicator has been achieved Achievable: Indicator correlates to target that can be attained by project Relevant: Indicator represents a result in intervention logic Time-bound: Achievement indicator target is linked to expected date of accomplishment Martin Steinmeyer

65 Implications of Indicator Selection
Conceivable Indicators for “access to qualified teachers” Change in total # of trained teachers (in country X; city Y) “# of teachers trained per year “# of trained teachers per 1000 children“ “% of teachers (per school) that have received training / have at least a Masters Degree “% of students who indicate that they have a “trained teacher” “% of teacher who are proficient in core curriculum of country X” “Teacher qualification index”; i.e. taking into account “% of underqualified teachers”; % of beginning teachers” per school. … which tools you will have to use to gather data! influences… … how costly your monitoring system will be! influences… … what skills you will need in your team! influences… … what the monitoring data (findings) can be used for! influences…

66 Exercise: Develop a set of indicators for your project
In your groups, please: Develop a set of indicators for the different levels of your intervention logic Think about the “Sources of Verification” (“where will my data come from”) for each of the indicators. Present them to the other groups Martin Steinmeyer

67 Thank You!!!! 67

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