2 Outputs of this Workshop At the end of the training, participants know: How to link new projects to the UNs mandate and strategic framework The concept of the Project / Programme Management Cycle How to prepare projects for implementation – using the results-chain as a tool (see also Logical Framework Matrix) How these concepts apply to the Monitoring and Evaluation of projects
3 Expected Accomplishment and Overall Objective of the Workshop This is supposed to…: Increase the quality of your projects … which in the end is meant to: Help to improve the performance of the UN overall
Exercise 1: Introduction What is the point strategic project planning? 4 4
5 The context of our projects.... United Nations (Your Organisation) The programme it belongs to Our Project Projects are used to create products and deliver business benefit Where the benefits of an individual project are meant to complement the benefits of other projects Where our project (and the programme) are meant to help our organisation to fulfil its mission Martin Steinmeyer
6 You need to make sure that.... United Nations (Your Organisation) The programme it belongs to Our Project.. your project is not here But really here!!! Martin Steinmeyer
7 You also need to make sure that.... United Nations(Your Organisation) The programme it belongs to Our Project... your project really has a chance of solving the problem you mean to address and thereby contributes to the objectives and mandates of the United Nations Martin Steinmeyer
8 8 Characteristics of a Project Has a defined start and an end; Has agreed, and well defined outputs and produces measurable effects (expected accomplishments); Has a balance between time, cost and quality; Has interrelated tasks, often grouped into phases; Has a temporary, often multidisciplinary project team brought together for the project; Might entail the involvement of people from other units or organizations.
9 9 The Project Context Organisational Politics Stakeholder Objectives External Pressures Time CostQuality
10 Project Management Structuring and facilitation of processes of change in order to produce outputs and accomplishments in the most effective and efficient way. Dealing with complexity and uncertainties related to the context and to human interactions; Dealing with the subjective perceptions and values of actors involved; Continuous collection and analysis of information, in order to take decisions and to make adaptations to achieve quality outputs.
11 The Project Management Cycle Concept Phase Implementation Phase Development Phase Evaluation Phase Project Charter Project Document
12 Concept Phase Project Identification Scope the Project Assemble Project Team Identify and analyse stakeholders Project Finance Risk Management The Project Charter Identify the problem to be addressed Develop Intervention Logic (how will project address the problem?)
United Nations Mandate Multi-annual strategic framework Introducing: the Intervention Logic 13 Overall / Goal Objectives Expected Accomplishment Outputs Activities Inputs Physical and non physical means necessary to undertake activities High level objectives to which the project contributes The main result of the project / main benefit to target group The (tangible) products of undertaken activities Tasks executed as part of the project to produce the projects outputs Martin Steinmeyer
United Nations Mandate Multi-annual strategic framework Levels of the Intervention Logic – Example 14 Overall Goal / Objectives Expected Accomplishment Outputs Activities Inputs Money, human resources, materials, equipment Access to urban water and sanitation in Country X expanded Improved management of water-related services by municipal water utility in capital Maintenance scheme, Improved staff capacity, Improved procurement, etc. Staff needs assessment and training, developing procurement guidelines, etc. Martin Steinmeyer
United Nations Mandate Multi-annual strategic framework Intervention logic during planning and implementation 15 Overall Goal / Objectives Expected Accomplishment Outputs Activities Inputs Money, human resources, materials, equipment Planning Implementation Martin Steinmeyer
16 Scoping the Project- example (i) In Scope of this project management skills workshop will be: Provision of practical tools, techniques and methods to manage projects; Use of harmonized terminology (with RBB) Refresher programme for some –new information for others; Work with real life projects; A workshop manual and handouts; Work in plenary as well as small group sessions.
17 Scoping the Project- example (ii) Out of Scope of this project management skills workshop are: Project finance and bids Project management software Management of project teams, teambuilding exercises and methods.
In your groups, please: Clarify the background & the problem(s) the project is meant to address Draft a first version of your projects intervention logic: –The Overall Goal / Objective –The Expected Accomplishment –The Outputs –The Activities Define / refine the scope of your project (borderline cases) Exercise: The first approach to your project 18 Martin Steinmeyer
19 Objectives (i)
20 Programme, Project, Component…
21 Stakeholders (i)... are any individual/s, groups of people, institutions or firms that may have a relationship with the project. They may – directly or indirectly, positively or negatively – affect or be affected by the process and the outcomes of the project.
22 Stakeholder Analysis Rest of the Organisation Finance Departmen t Staff UN Project Management Training: Stakeholders Trainer Team Project Managers Staff Developm ent Unit
23 Stakeholders (ii) Beneficiaries: Those who benefit from the implementation of the project Target group/s The group/entity who will be immediately and positively affected by the project (outcome level) Project Partners: Those who help to implement the project (output level) And finally: Troublemakers: Those who can give you grief...
24 Stakeholder Analysis List all relevant stakeholders. Who is the target group? Who are the beneficiaries? Who are the project partners? Who might have a positive/negative impact on the project? Who might be affected by the project negatively?
25 Stakeholder Analysis (i)
26 Stakeholder Analysis (iiii) Identifying Stakeholder Expectations StakeholderThey want and We Want: They Want but We Dont: We Want but They Dont:
27 Stakeholder Analysis (ii) S trengths W eaknesses O pportunities T hreats
In your groups, please: Brainstorm and list all relevant stakeholders Pick two (2) of our three (3) analysis tools (map, matrix, SWOT) and apply to your project Determine for your project –Who is / are the target group/s for your project? –Who can you use as project partners? –Who are potential "troublemakers"? Consider: What changes to your original project design should you make? Group Exercise: Stakeholder Analysis 28 Martin Steinmeyer
29 Stakeholder Analysis (i) X Z F C A M B Q Venn diagram : the size of the circle depicts the influence of the stakeholder; the closeness or distance of the circles depict the relationships between the stakeholders
30 Stakeholder Analysis (iii) Rank your stakeholders along this continuum : Totally supportive Strongly Against Neutral Moderately supportive Moderately Against X Q Z AY
31 Risk Assessment Matrix IMPACT/ PROBABILITY Impact 4: major Impact 3: medium Impact 2: low Impact 1: insignifica nt Probability A: almost certain Probability B: likely Probability C: moderate Probability D: almost zero
Identifying Responses to Risks Prince 2 Risk Response Categories: P revention: Eliminate source of risk, stop risk from happening R eduction: Reduce probability of risk happening A cceptance: Deciding to do nothing about a risk C ontingency: Prepare for risk to happen by identifying contingent time, money, actions T ransference: Give risk to someone else, e.g. insurance company, contractor 32
In your groups, please: Brainstorm on the main risks your project is facing Develop a Risk Assessment Matrix for your project Decide how you will manage the identified risks in your project, using the 5 risk response categories Group Exercise: Risk Analysis 33 Martin Steinmeyer
34 The Project Charter A Project Charter is a concise and clear framework that summarizes the work done in the concept phase of the project. It is a presentation format for project proposals. Project proposals are budget proposals.
35 Checklist for Drawing Up a Project Charter What is the organisational rationale for the project? Are the project objectives (outputs and expected accomplishment) clear and unambiguous? What actions need to be done? Who is going to do them? What resources are required? What is not going to be done? Is everything feasible and realistic`? Are outputs, expected accomplishment and obcectives measurable? If so what measures should be used?
36 Project Charter (example) Project Name: Background / Problem to be addressed: Intervention Logic (Project Objectives, Expected Accomplishment and Outputs): Scope (point out borderline issues): Team/ Resource roles: Who does what? Project Risk Assessment: Which ones have we anticipated? How are we planning to react to the major risks (design!!!) (Project Milestones: What needs to happen when? Include project review dates in this section) (Achievement Measurement: How will we know if weve succeeded?)
37 Project Proposal: quality criteria (example) Relevance relates to whether the project addresses the real problems of the intended beneficiaries. Feasibility relates to whether the project objectives can be effectively achieved. Sustainability relates to whether project benefits will continue to flow after the external support has ended. ?
In your groups, please prepare your projects for presentation to the board: Review the project design against the three quality criteria (relevance, feasibility, sustainability) Make adjustments where necessary Fill the different sections of the project charter (Project Name, Background, Intervention Logic, Scope) Agree on who should present the project concept to the board (4 minutes of presentation) Group Exercise: Drafting the Project Charter 38 Martin Steinmeyer
39 The Development Phase Planning Resources: Material Equipment Money Refine the scope to balance T/C/Q (develop the log-frame matrix) List tasks and activities in relevant sequence Develop an efficient schedule and budget for resources People Ensure approval of plans by relevant stakeholders Review/ Audit
The Logical Framework Matrix (LogFrame)... IF results are delivered, AND assumptions hold true, THEN the project purpose will be achieved... Intervention Logic Sources of Verification Assumptions (Risks) Activities Outputs Expected Accomplishment Overall Goal / Objective MeansCost Status Quo Indicators 40 Martin Steinmeyer
42 Scheduling Scheduling aims at producing a sequence for the activities to be carried out to meet the project key dates and objectives - and forms the basis for planning resources and for monitoring. Break down main activities into tasks and subtasks Think about dependencies
43 Diagrams to Show the Order of Project Tasks: Network Diagrams Task CTask DTask BTask A Task D Task C Task B Task A
44 Diagrams to Show Order of Project Tasks Task ATask BTask A Task B Finish to Start : The end of the predecessor and the start of the successor are related. Start to Start : The starts of predecessor and successor are related. Example: Task B cannot start until task A has finished. Example: Task B can start at the same time/ shortly after the start of task A. Tasks can be related in different ways:
45 Diagrams to Show Order of Project Tasks Task A Task B Finish to Finish : The ends of predecessor and succesor are related Example: Task B can finish at the same time/ shortly after Task B has finished. Tasks can be related in different ways: In addition lead-time before an activity as well as lag-time after an activity can be defined
46 Critical Path Method The Critical Path Method displays activities and events of a project graphically as a network. It helps to identify which activities are critical to maintaining the schedule (those lying on the critical path) – and which are not.
47 Critical Path Analysis Analysis and planning steps: 1.Identify and list all (sub)activities 2.Determine the duration of each (sub)activity 3.Identify the sequence in which the (sub)activities have to be carried out (predecessor) – and their interdependence 4.Draw the diagram (nodes and arrows –an activity on arrow diagram) 5.Identify the critical path
48 An Example for CPM ActivityDurationRequired Predecessor ADesign guide on history teaching5 monthsNone BIdentify schools to participate in testing of the new guide. 1 monthNone CTranslate preliminary guide2 monthsA DPrint and distribute guide to pilot schools. 3 monthsA, B Exxxx2 monthsA FTrain sample of trainers3 monthsC Gyyyyy4 monthsD Hzzzz2 monthsB,E Ioooo1 monthH JWrite project report1 monthF,G,I
49 CPM Diagram: An Example A 5m B 1m E 2m D 3m C 2m G 4m F 3m J 1m H 2m I 1m The critical path is the path that takes longest. Delays of the activities on this path will cause the project to be delayed. Adapted from Baker, S.L.
50 Gantt Charts Gantt charts are another technique that can be used for scheduling. They are bar graphs that help plan and monitor project development or resource allocation on a horizontal time scale.
51 Gantt Charts In general, Gantt charts indicate the exact (planned & actual) duration of a specific task, but they can also be used to indicate the relationships between the tasks (inter-/ dependence), planned and actual completion dates, cost of each task, the person/s responsible for each task and the respective milestones.
52 Working with Milestones Milestones are important, clearly defined events in the course of a project that are of particular interest for the project manager.They represent the project progress and are supposed to take place on a specific date. Milestones are events of particular importance. E.g. the end of a task, a decision taken, end of a project phase, etc. – it is the project manager who has to decide what is an event of particular importance.
53 Milestone Trend Analysis Milestones can be used to monitor project progress and identify trends. Steps for a milestone trend analysis: 1.Define milestones in terms of content and date 2.Review milestones periodically verifying the schedule 3.Estimate new, likely dates for milestones, if necessary 4.Enter milestone dates in the chart 5.Comment on deviations 6.Think about possible consequences of and remedial action for deviations from plan
54 Milestone Trend Analysis Reporting Milestone Ascending line : target date delayed Straight line : target date as planned Descending line : target date earlier than planned
55 The Implementation Phase Motivate/ lead and manage the team Fully mobilise all/ relevant/ appropriate project activities Monitor and Control – as appropriate Problem Solving Dont Forget Risk Management Review Progress – And Audit Ensure organisation and communication are current and timely
56 The Close Out Phase Finish Work Negotiate Settlements (tie up loose ends) Evaluate and Review Hand Over to Operations
Monitoring and Evaluation InformationAccountability Learning Legitimacy The Purpose of Monitoring and Evaluation Stockmann/CEval 57
M&E throughout the life of a project 58 Desired situation PROJECT Mid-term Evaluation End-of project or final evaluation Ex-post or impact evaluation Present situation: ex-ante evaluation Time Sustained benefits and impact...monitoring Martin Steinmeyer
Monitoring Clarifies program objectives Links activities and their resources to objectives Translates objectives into performance indicators and sets targets Routinely collects data on these indicators, compares actual results with targets Reports progress to managers and alerts them to problems Complementary role of Monitoring (M) & Evaluation (E) 59 Evaluation Analyses why intended results were (not) achieved Assesses causal contributions of activities to results Examines implementation process Explores unintended results Provides lessons, highlights significant accomplishments and offers recommendations for improvements Martin Steinmeyer
Criteria for Evaluating Development Assistance Slide No. 60 Impact Did people we woke up did useful things we hoped they would do? Did others join in? Worth of an activity Effectiveness Efficiency Relevance Sustainability Did we wake people up? How many? How cheap was the bang? Were there cheaper bangs around? Did people want (or need) to be woken up in the first place? When we stopped making noise, did people keep on doing this, or did they fall back asleep? Our Project: Waking people up (with a big bang)
Evaluation Criteria and the LogFrame Evaluation criteria & logframe levels sustainability Overall goals /objectives Expected Accomplishment Outputs Activities Means allocation action utilisation change Problematic Situation relevance efficiency effectiveness impact 61 Martin Steinmeyer
What is an Indicator Quantitative or qualitative factor or variable that provides simple and reliable means to measure achievement, to reflect changes connected to an intervention, or to help assess performance of an actor. Example: Change of # of qualified and experienced teachers per 1000 children of primary-school age in area X in one year Developing Indicators 62 Martin Steinmeyer
It must be verifiable by the evaluator and a third party It must be linked to the results intended or to significant changes in the situation It must be manageable to collect, present and to track over time Some also want indicators to be S.M.A.R.T: S pecific, M easureable, A chievable, R elevant, T imebound What makes a good indicator? 63 Martin Steinmeyer
Specific: Indicator is clearly stated, focused on result to be measured and described as change Measurable / Monitorable: possible to collect information to decide if Indicator has been achieved Achievable: Indicator correlates to target that can be attained by project Relevant: Indicator represents a result in intervention logic Time-bound: Achievement indicator target is linked to expected date of accomplishment S.M.A.R.T Indicators 64 Martin Steinmeyer
Implications of Indicator Selection 65 Change in total # of trained teachers (in country X; city Y) # of teachers trained per year # of trained teachers per 1000 children % of teachers (per school) that have received training / have at least a Masters Degree % of students who indicate that they have a trained teacher % of teacher who are proficient in core curriculum of country X Teacher qualification index; i.e. taking into account % of underqualified teachers; % of beginning teachers per school. influences… … which tools you will have to use to gather data! influences… … how costly your monitoring system will be! influences… … what skills you will need in your team! influences… … what the monitoring data (findings) can be used for! Conceivable Indicators for access to qualified teachers
In your groups, please: Develop a set of indicators for the different levels of your intervention logic Think about the Sources of Verification (where will my data come from) for each of the indicators. Present them to the other groups Exercise: Develop a set of indicators for your project 66 Martin Steinmeyer