#  There is no single “scientific method”  Most scientific investigations tend to have common stages involved  These stages include: Making/collecting.

## Presentation on theme: " There is no single “scientific method”  Most scientific investigations tend to have common stages involved  These stages include: Making/collecting."— Presentation transcript:

 There is no single “scientific method”  Most scientific investigations tend to have common stages involved  These stages include: Making/collecting observations, asking questions, forming hypotheses, testing your hypotheses (experiments), and drawing conclusions

 Observations are the act of noting or perceiving objects or events using the senses  Every scientific investigation begins with an observation

 Making observations leads to asking questions  Many questions can be answered through observations  In the end, some questions remain unanswered  Evidence is needed to answer these types of questions

 Hypothesis is an explanation that might be true, a statement that can be tested by additional observations or experiments  It is not just a guess, it is an educated guess based on what is already known  A prediction is the expected outcome of a test, assuming the hypothesis is correct

 An experiment is a planned procedure to test a hypothesis  In a controlled experiment, an experimental group is compared with a control group  A control group is a group in an experiment that receives no experimental treatment  The experimental and control groups are designed to be identical except for one factor, or variable

 The independent variable in an experiment is the factor/variable that is changed  The dependent variable is the variable that is measured in an experiment Now let’s look at an example..

 A pharmaceutical company is testing a new drug to improve memory in patients with dementia. They administer this drug to forty patients with dementia and a placebo to forty patients with dementia twice a day for three months. After this time the patients go through a battery of exercises that tests memory.  List the dependent and independent variables and control group:

 Descriptive Investigations are based mainly on observations  Ex. Making models and dissections  Comparative Investigations involve comparing data on different populations or organisms  Ex. Comparing two plants, one with fertilizer and one without  Experimental Investigations are the manipulation of variables (independent and dependent variables with a control)

 After the data from experiments is collected and analyzed, a conclusion is made as to whether or not the data supports the hypothesis  A hypothesis can be supported or rejected  A hypothesis can be supported but not proven. This is because another experiment with new data and information can alter the conclusion

 Just because a hypothesis is supported does not mean it is a theory  A theory is a set of related hypothesis that have been tested and confirmed many times by different scientist

 At the conclusion of completing the scientific method, a scientific explanation is usually given  This explanation includes:  Claims  Evidence  Reasoning

 Claims are statements that answer your original question  Typically is only one sentence  It must be accurate, specific, and completely answer the question

 The evidence is all of the scientific data that supports your claim  The evidence can come from a variety of sources  It is important to have numerous pieces of evidence in order to prove your claim

 Reasoning is the explanation that connects your claim to the evidence that supports it  It shows why the data you chose counts as evidence  This explanation acts as a conclusion

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