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Representation of Chemicals in Biomedical Terminologies Stefan Schulz Medical Informatics Research Group University Medical Center Freiburg, Germany 2nd.

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Presentation on theme: "Representation of Chemicals in Biomedical Terminologies Stefan Schulz Medical Informatics Research Group University Medical Center Freiburg, Germany 2nd."— Presentation transcript:

1 Representation of Chemicals in Biomedical Terminologies Stefan Schulz Medical Informatics Research Group University Medical Center Freiburg, Germany 2nd CHEBI User Group Workshop June 2010 EMBL-EBI, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SD, UK

2 Purpose of this talk To give an overview of sources of chemicals in biomedical terminologies based on the UMLS To estimate their coverage related to ChEBI To analyze the ontological representation in the sources To discuss cross mapping with ChEBI

3 Overview of UMLS

4 Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus Very large, multi-purpose and multi-lingual vocabulary database (158 sources) information about biomedical concepts (2M), their various names (8M), and relationships among them (41M) IP restrictions apply Semantic Network Semantic Types, that provide a consistent categorization of all concepts represented in the UMLS Metathesaurus

5 C |GER|P|L |PF|S |2-Chloradenosin|3| C |GER|s|L |PF|S |CHLORADENOSIN 02|3| C |ITA|P|L |PF|S |2-Cloroadenosina|3| C |POR|P|L |PF|S |2-Cloroadenosina|3| C |SPA|P|L |PF|S |2-Cloroadenosina|3| C |SWE|P|L |PF|S |2-kloradenosin|3| C |CZE|P|L |PF|S |2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzylbromid|3| C |ENG|P|L |PF|S |2-Hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl Bromide|0| C |ENG|P|L |VO|S |2 Hydroxy 5 nitrobenzyl Bromide|0| C |ENG|S|L |PF|S |Koshland's Reagent I|0| C |ENG|S|L |VO|S |Koshland Reagent I|0| C |ENG|S|L |VO|S |Koshlands Reagent I|0| C |ENG|S|L |VW|S |Reagent I, Koshland's|0| C |ENG|S|L |PF|S |Koshlands Reagent|0| C |ENG|S|L |VO|S |Koshland Reagent|0| C |ENG|S|L |VO|S |Reagent, Koshland|0| C |ENG|S|L |VW|S |Reagent, Koshlands|0| C |ENG|S|L |PF|S |Phenol, 2-(bromomethyl)-4-nitro-|0| C |ENG|S|L |PF|S |2-Hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl Bromide [Chemical/Ingredient]|1| C |ENG|s|L |PF|S |KOSHLANDS REAGENT 01|0| C |ENG|s|L |PF|S |HYDROXYNITROBENZYL BROMIDE 02 05|0| C |FIN|P|L |PF|S |2-hydroksi-5-nitrobentsyylibromidi|3| C |FRE|P|L |PF|S |Bromure 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl|3| C |FRE|S|L |PF|S |2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl, bromure|3| C |GER|P|L |PF|S |2-Hydroxy-5-Nitrobenzylbromid|3| C |GER|S|L |PF|S |Koshland-Reagens I|3| C |GER|s|L |PF|S |HYDROXYNITROBENZYLBROMID 02 05|3| C |GER|s|L |PF|S |KOSHLAND REAGENS 01|3| C |ITA|P|L |PF|S |2-Idrossi-5-nitrobenzil bromuro|3| C |POR|P|L |PF|S |2-Hidroxi-5-nitrobenzil Brometo|3| C |POR|S|L |PF|S |Reagente de Koshland I|3| C |SPA|P|L |PF|S |2-Hidroxi-5-nitrobencil Bromuro|3| C |SPA|S|L |PF|S |Reactivo de Koshland I|3| C |SWE|P|L |PF|S |2-hydroxi-5-nitrobensylbromid|3| C |CZE|P|L |PF|S |2-hydroxyfenethylamin|3| C |ENG|P|L |PF|S |2-Hydroxyphenethylamine|0| C |ENG|P|L |VO|S |2 Hydroxyphenethylamine|0| UMLS terms and concepts Cross-source and language term mapping to CUIs done by NLM

6 UMLS relations C |CHD|C ||MSHSPA|MSHSPA|| C |CHD|C ||MSHSWE|MSHSWE|| C |CHD|C ||MSH|MSH|| C |CHD|C ||SNMI|SNMI|| C |CHD|C ||CST|CST|| C |CHD|C ||CST|CST|| C |CHD|C |isa|SCTSPA|SCTSPA|| C |CHD|C |isa|SNOMEDCT|SNOMEDCT|| C |CHD|C ||RCD|RCD|| C |CHD|C |isa|SCTSPA|SCTSPA|| C |CHD|C |isa|SNOMEDCT|SNOMEDCT|| C |CHD|C |isa|SCTSPA|SCTSPA|| C |CHD|C |isa|SNOMEDCT|SNOMEDCT|| C |CHD|C |part_of|UWDA|UWDA|| C |CHD|C |part_of|UWDA|UWDA|| C |CHD|C |part_of|UWDA|UWDA|| C |CHD|C |part_of|UWDA|UWDA|| C |CHD|C |isa|SCTSPA|SCTSPA|| C |CHD|C |isa|SNOMEDCT|SNOMEDCT|| C |CHD|C |isa|SCTSPA|SCTSPA|| C |CHD|C |isa|SNOMEDCT|SNOMEDCT|| C |CHD|C ||SNMI|SNMI|| C |CHD|C |isa|SCTSPA|SCTSPA|| C |CHD|C |isa|SNOMEDCT|SNOMEDCT|| C |CHD|C ||SNMI|SNMI|| C |CHD|C ||SNMI|SNMI|| C |CHD|C |isa|SCTSPA|SCTSPA|| C |CHD|C |isa|SNOMEDCT|SNOMEDCT|| C |CHD|C |part_of|UWDA|UWDA|| C |CHD|C ||RCD|RCD|| Relations preserved from their sources Thesaurus style relations (CHD / PAR) More precise relations (relationship attribute) i.e. part-of, is-a

7 UMLS Semantic Network

8 Chemicals in the UMLS SN

9 Semantic Labeling of UMLS concepts Semantic labeling Done by the NLM Each UMLS concept is assigned to one or more semantic types

10 Chemicals in UMLS and its sources

11 Semantic Network types for chemicals: T103|Chemical T104|Chemical Viewed Structurally T109|Organic Chemical T110|Steroid T111|Eicosanoid T114|Nucleic Acid, Nucleoside, or Nucleotide T115|Organophosphorus Compound T116|Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein T118|Carbohydrate T119|Lipid T120|Chemical Viewed Functionally T121|Pharmacologic Substance T122|Biomedical or Dental Material T123|Biologically Active Substance T124|Neuroreactive Substance or Biogenic Amine T125|Hormone T126|Enzyme T195|Antibiotic T192|Receptor T127|Vitamin T129|Immunologic Factor T130|Indicator, Reagent, or Diagnostic Aid T131|Hazardous or Poisonous Substance T196|Element, Ion, or Isotope T197|Inorganic Chemical T200|Clinical Drug

12 Chemicals in UMLS source vocabularies

13 Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) MSH2,4,6-TIP MSHhurin protein, Hura crepitans MSHnorfentanyl monohydrochloride MSHPhenylglyoxal MSHgas vesicle structural protein A, Bacteria MSHyttrium silicate MSH2-aminoethanethiosulfuric acid, 35S-labeled MSHacethropan-S, acetate MSHN-methyl-alpha-tocopheramine nitroxide MSHantimony pentachloride MSHISG20 protein, human MSHmedosulepine, (Z)-isomer MSHMUC1 protein, human MSHvalacyclovir, x-hydrochloride, (D)-isomer MSHFmn1 protein, mouse MSHcytochrome c, N-epsilon-acetimidate MSH14,16-dianhydrogi-toxigenin-3-O-xylopyranosyl-1-2-O-galactopyranoside MSH4-iodoclonidine MSHpoly(ethylenimine sulfide) MSH2-methoxy-6-tridecyl-1,4-benzoquinone MSHLisuride MSHMan-(1-3)-(Man-(1-6))-Man MSHSre1 protein, S pombe MSHslou protein, Drosophila MSHAc-odv-e56 protein, Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus MSHYoYo-3 MSHcripowellin B MSH3-quinuclidinyl atrolactate, (S-(R*,S*))-isomer MSH4-vinyl-N-carboxymethylpyridinium MSH2,5-dihydroxybenzylidene aminoguanidine MSHpurealidin S

14 SNOMED Clinical Terms SNOMEDCTbisalbumins SNOMEDCTSpiramycin Adipate SNOMEDCT2,2,2-trichloroethanol SNOMEDCTPromethazine Hydrochloride SNOMEDCTthenium closylate SNOMEDCTCD67 Antigen SNOMEDCTEthyleneimine antineoplastic SNOMEDCThydrocortisone acetate and neomycin sulfate SNOMEDCTHexan-2,5-dione SNOMEDCTSteroidal neuromuscular blocker SNOMEDCTtrospium chloride SNOMEDCTNeostigmine Methylsulfate SNOMEDCTOligotriacrylate 480 SNOMEDCTLemon specific immunoglobulin E SNOMEDCTMonocarboxylate SNOMEDCTEthosuximide SNOMEDCTPhthalic acid ester SNOMEDCTCombination ulcer healing drugs SNOMEDCTdarunavir SNOMEDCTOphthalmic form clotrimazole SNOMEDCTBlood group antigen Horn SNOMEDCTMycoplasma synoviae bacterin SNOMEDCTDimethoxanate SNOMEDCTDemeton SNOMEDCTSilicon Dioxide SNOMEDCT^133^Iodine SNOMEDCTAmylose SNOMEDCTglymidine SNOMEDCTParsley specific immunoglobulin E SNOMEDCTAnhydrous borate SNOMEDCTTetracycline

15 LOINC LNCManihot esculenta crantz Antibody.immunoglobulin E LNCGlutamine |; urine LNCChlamydia trachomatis D+E+F+G+H+I+J+K IgA |; Bld-Ser-Plas LNCHLA-D w16 |; bld-ser-plas LNCColorado tick fever virus Ab |; bld-ser-plas LNCFluconazole |; isolate & serum LNCAfrican horse sickness virus Antigen LNCZea mays Ab LNCLe^b Antibody LNCTriglyceride |; Semen LNCLeishmania tropica Antibody.immunoglobulin G LNCCystine |; White blood cells LNCannexin A5 LNCArtemisia douglasiana Antibody.immunoglobulin E LNC2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetate |; bld-ser-plas LNCStreptococcus pneumoniae 9 IgG |; bld-ser-plas LNC2-hydroxyglutarate |; urine LNCDodecenoylcarnitine (C12:1) |; Cerebral spinal fluid LNCToxocara canis Ab |; cerebral spinal fluid LNCGlobulin |; bld-ser-plas LNCStreptococcus species antibody LNCBSA (Bovine serum albumin) |; White blood cells LNCThreonine/Creatinine LNCAmylases LNCStreptococcus pneumoniae 9n Antibody.immunoglobulin G LNCMycoplasma pneumoniae Ab |; body fluid LNCAmobarbital |; gastric fluid LNCMycoplasma pneumoniae Antibody.immunoglobulin G LNCHaemophilus influenzae B LNCInsulin-Like Growth-Factor-Binding Proteins

16 Product Category Thesaurus UMDReagents, Serology, Virus, Retrovirus, HIV-1, Antibody UMDReagents, Molecular Assay, Tumor Marker, Chromosome, Translocation, t(12;15) UMDReagents, Microbiology, Bacteria, Identification, Listeria monocytogenes UMDReagents, Molecular Assay, Infection, Bacteria, Bordetella Species UMDReagents, Molecular Assay, Infection, Virus, Epstein-Barr, DNA UMDB Loci Human Leukocyte Antigen Determination Reagents UMDCell Culture Media, Serum UMDTrench Fever Diagnostic Reagents UMDReagents, Serology, Virus, Retrovirus, Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus-I/II UMDClostridium botulinum Identification/Detection Reagents UMDReagents, Molecular Assay, Infection, Virus, Eastern Equine Encephalitis, RNA UMDReagents, Hematology, Standard, Coagulation, Plasma UMDReagents, Immunohematology, Antibody Detection/Identification, Enhancement Media, Polyethylene Glycol UMDListeria monocytogenes Detection/Identification Reagents UMDReagents, Molecular Assay, Infection, Virus, Hepatitis G UMDReagents, Immunoassay, Toxicology, Salicylate UMDReagents, Immunoassay, Control, Bone Metabolism UMDAlpha2-Antiplasmin Determination Reagents UMDPyridoline Crosslink Determination Reagents UMDActivated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) Determination Reagents UMDReagents, Hematology, Fibrinolysis, Plasminogen Activator, Urokinase UMDTuberculosis Diagnostic Reagents UMDReagents, Immunoassay, Tumor Marker, Enzyme, Neuron Specific Enolase UMDReagents, Immunoassay, Tumor Marker, Fecal Occult Blood UMDCLEANSER UMDReagents, Molecular Assay, Infection, Bacteria, Ehrlichia Species UMDCentral Nervous System Drug Level Determination Reagents, Anticonvulsant Agent UMDSinusitis Diagnostic Reagents UMDAnti-Filaggrin Antibody Determination Reagents UMDKappa Reagents, Light Chain Monoclonal Immunoglobulin UMDReagents, Molecular Assay, Infection, Virus, Eastern Equine Encephalitis

17 Master Drug Database MDDBDeoxyribose (Bulk) Powder MDDBLithium Chloride (Bulk) Powder MDDBMercurous Chloride (Bulk) Powder MDDBFerric Chloride (Bulk) Powder MDDBGinger Oil (Bulk) MDDBLevodopa Powder MDDBAntimony Trichloride (Bulk) Powder MDDBCalcium Lactate Powder MDDBDanthron Powder MDDBVitamin E Acetate (Bulk) Liquid MDDBNiacin Powder MDDBBetamethasone Acetate (Bulk) Powder MDDBDill Seed Oil MDDBEmollient Cream MDDBDye FDC Blue 1 (Brilliant Blue FCF) - Powder MDDBCorticotropin (Bulk) Powder MDDBXylometazoline HCl (Bulk) Powder MDDBDentifrices - Solution MDDBOrphenadrine Citrate Powder MDDBBlood Glucose Calibration - Liquid - Low MDDBXanthan Gum Powder MDDBL-Alpha Pinene (Bulk) Powder MDDBlavender oil MDDBjuniper tar MDDBRice Bran (Bulk) Oil MDDBBay Oil (Myrcia Oil) MDDBTamoxifen Citrate (Bulk) Powder MDDBEucalyptol (Bulk) Liquid MDDBHyoscyamine Sulfate Powder MDDBTriclosan (Bulk) Powder MDDBLanolin Oil-Urea (Bulk) Oint MDDBChlortetracycline HCl Powder

18 RxNORM RXNORMPhenazopyridine HCl Powder RXNORMPri-Methylate RXNORMPerdiem RXNORMChewing Gum, dose form RXNORMXylocaine-MPF-Epinephrine RXNORMRobitussin-DM RXNORMproxymetacaine RXNORMPetroleum distillate RXNORMMiradon RXNORMCiproflaxacin RXNORMPerioChip RXNORMOral Strip RXNORMRectal Ointment RXNORMOctocaine with Epinephrine RXNORMHydro Pro D RXNORMDynacirc RXNORMHydrophene DH RXNORMPaloxin RXNORMLevsin/SL Tablets RXNORMGlutarol RXNORMBenzaclin RXNORMDiethylstilbestrol RXNORMAMINOSALICYLATE RXNORMCEFACLOR MISCELL POWDER (GM) RXNORMChlorpromazine HCl Powder RXNORML-All 12 RXNORMTherapy Bayer RXNORMBellamine S RXNORMLavacol RXNORMAuro Ear

19 Multum MediSource Lexicon MMSLVitamins MMSLGen-Cyclobenzaprine MMSLUni-Tussin DM MMSLAfrin Pump Mist MMSLMeperidine+promethazine MMSLLipidil Supra MMSLIcy Hot PM MMSLRocuronium MMSLGormel MMSLDHT brand of dihydrotachyesterol MMSLSchuessler's Acne Remedy MMSLAlphaBath MMSLDymadon P MMSLRynesa 12S MMSLMersol MMSLdoxycycline topical MMSLCalcium Sulfate, Anhydrous MMSLPSE Allergy MMSLZ-Cof DM MMSLRamses Personal MMSLTri-Hist Pediatric MMSLCortisone Acetate Micronized, compounding powder MMSLMicrainin MMSLCeron Drops MMSLVasotec MMSLepinephrine compounding powder MMSLBenoquin MMSLSpastrin MMSLTramal SR MMSLAntiseptic Skin Cleanser

20 Alternative Billing Concepts ALTMatthiola graeca / giliflower ALTAdoxa moschatellina / common moschatel ALTCinnamomum camphora, camphor, Homeopathic preparation ALTCroton eleuteria / cascarilla / amber kabug / sweet bark ALTPediculus capitis, Homeopathic preparation ALTZea italica, corn silk, Homeopathic preparations ALTHippozaeninum / glanders nosode ALTCobalt ALTSalvia officinalis, homeopathic preparation ALTArbutus andrachne preparation ALTAndira araroba / chrysarobinum / chrysophan / goa powder ALTSedum acre / small houseleek ALTUrinum humanum / human urine ALTAurum muriaticum natronatum / double chloride of gold and sodium / sodium chloroaurate ALTCistus canadensis preparation ALTXanthorrhea arborea preparation ALTCornus florida preparation ALTAquilegia vulgaris preparation ALTErgotinum, homeopathic preparation ALTMimulus lewisii / rose colored musk ALTLac vaccinum coagulatum / milk curds ALTRobinia pseudoacacia / yellow locust ALTSolidago virgaurea, homeopathic preparation ALTCholesterinum / cholesterine ALTBenzinum dinitricum, benzinum, benzol, coal naphtha, Homeopathic preparation ALTDerris pinnata / pongram ALTCalcarea renalis, Homeopathic preparations ALTCentella asiatica, homeopathic preparation ALTCulex musca, Homeopathic preparation ALTPython regia (homeopathic remedy) ALTDarlingtonia californica / California pitcher plant ALTFive flower formula / rescue remedy

21 Chemicals in UMLS source vocabularies

22 Hidden references to chemicals Accidental poisoning by other opiates NOS Accidental poisoning by codeine Accidental poisoning by pethidine Accidental poisoning by morphine Accidental poisoning by opium Accidental poisoning by aromatic analgesics NOS Accidental poisoning by aromatic analgesics NEC Accidental poisoning by acetanilide Accidental poisoning by phenacetin Accidental poisoning by aminophenazone Accidental poisoning by antirheumatics NOS Accidental poisoning by pentazocine Accidental poisoning by pentobarbitone Accidental poisoning by quinalbarbitone Accidental poisoning by bromides Accidental poisoning by cabromal derivatives Accidental poisoning by carbamic esters Accidental poisoning by chlorpromazine Accidental poisoning by fluphenazine Accidental poisoning by prochlorperazine Accidental poisoning by promazine Accidental poisoning by spiperone Accidental poisoning by chlordiazepoxide Example: ICD9-CM Example: *intox* or *poison* or *allerg* returns non-chemical concepts roughly half of them refer to chemicals

23 Explicit reference to chemicals

24 Chemicals in UMLS: Summary MeSH (85% Substance terms) is the most important source for chemicals Health care related sources include also natural products, drugs, lab procedures Pharmacy related sources include pharmaceutical preparations and products Many sources are rather heterogeneous (UMLS typing not always consistent) (implizit) reference to chemicals in most clinical terminologies

25 Ontology aspects of UMLS chemistry sources

26 UMLS only includes Concept – Relation – Concept triplets Only very few UMLS sources are ontology-like, i.e. they have some formal semantics, e.g. SNOMED CT or NDF-RT UMLS distinguishes thesaurus-style broader/narrower hierarchy-building relations from more precise ones (relation attributes) Only part of the latter describe the entities to be represented themselves (e.g. part-of, has-active ingredient), other ones describe the representational units and the attached terms (mapped-to, has- translation)

27 Ontological relations involving chemicals (608,315) Chemical – Rel – Non-Chemical

28 Ontological relations between chemicals (173,502) Chemical – Rel – Chemical

29 Analysis of relations in UMLS Broad spectrum and high number of relations between chemicals and non-chemicals. Of interest for relating chemical with other concepts of biomedical interest. Rather poor in terms of inter-chemical relations, often due to Semantic type misassignments SNOMED CT: quinupristin-dalfopristinhas_active_ingredient dalfopristin NDFFT: Raloxifene Hydrochloridehas_mechanism_of_action Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators CRISP: Reserpineused_for reserpate derivative NCI: Rimantadine Hydrochloridehas_free_acid_or_base_form Rimantadine

30 MeSH in PubChem Properties as parents in informal hierarchy

31 Mapping / Tagging

32 UMLS MetaMap / Medical Text Indexer 567 Morphinans [Organic Chemical] 577 Seconal [Organic Chemical,Pharmacologic Substance] 604 Talwin [Organic Chemical,Pharmacologic Substance] 627 Acetanilides [Organic Chemical,Pharmacologic Substance] 637 Aromatic (AROMATICS) [Organic Chemical,Pharmacologic Substance] 645 Esters [Organic Chemical] 645 derivatives [Chemical Viewed Structurally] 660 Acetanilid (acetanilide) [Organic Chemical,Pharmacologic Substance] 660 Amidophenazon (Aminopyrine) [Organic Chemical,Pharmacologic Substance] 660 Bromides [Inorganic Chemical] 660 Chlorpromazine [Organic Chemical,Pharmacologic Substance] 660 Codeine [Organic Chemical,Pharmacologic Substance] 660 Morphine [Organic Chemical,Pharmacologic Substance] 660 Opium [Organic Chemical,Pharmacologic Substance] 660 Pentazocine [Organic Chemical,Pharmacologic Substance] 660 Pentobarbitone (Pentobarbital) [Organic Chemical,Pharmacologic Substance] 660 Pethidine (Meperidine) [Organic Chemical,Pharmacologic Substance] 660 Phenacetin [Organic Chemical,Pharmacologic Substance] 660 Quinalbarbitone (Secobarbital) [Organic Chemical,Pharmacologic Substance] 1000 Fluphenazine [Organic Chemical,Pharmacologic Substance] MetaMap Version Used: metamap09 MetaMap Options: -A+ Lexicon Used: 2009 Knowledge Source Used: 09 Input Text: Accidental poisoning by codeine Accidental poisoning by pethidine Accidental poisoning by morphine Accidental poisoning by opium Accidental poisoning by aromatic analgesics NOS Accidental poisoning by aromatic analgesics NEC Accidental poisoning by acetanilide Accidental poisoning by phenacetin Accidental poisoning by aminophenazone Accidental poisoning by antirheumatics NOS Accidental poisoning by pentazocine Accidental poisoning by pentobarbitone Accidental poisoning by quinalbarbitone Accidental poisoning by bromides Accidental poisoning by cabromal derivatives Accidental poisoning by carbamic esters Accidental poisoning by chlorpromazine Accidental poisoning by fluphenazine

33 Whatizit

34 Conclusions Most Biomedical Terminologies contain chemical concepts, drugs or concepts referring to them MeSH has the highest coverage Fairly good coverage of semantic relations linking chemicals to non-chemicals No significant source for semantic relations between chemicals Mappings ChEBI – UMLS: to MeSH via PubChem, but only higher level MeSH terms NLP tools (MetaMap, Medical Text Indexer, WhatIzIt) not yet optimized for Chemical names.


36 CRISP Thesaurus SABCUIStr CSPTetrabenazine CSPgamma-Aminobutyrate CSPmethoxyindole CSPYellow Fever Vaccine CSPClomiphene CSPChenodeoxycholate CSPCrack Cocaine CSPH antigen, bacterial CSPSalts CSPMethimazole CSPerythroidine CSPhalobiphenyl/halotriphenyl compound CSPSelenoprotein P CSPcyclohexane carboxylate CSPLomustine CSPShiga Toxins CSPProdrugs CSPDiuretics CSPLeukotrienes E CSPProteolipids CSPThymidine Monophosphate CSPaspidospermine CSPhalocarbon compound CSPMitomycin CSPAbortifacient Agents CSPMorning After Pill CSPCyclophosphamide CSPPoisons CSPvirus envelope

37 NCI Thesaurus NCIZaditor NCIhydrocortisone acetate NCIKOS-953 NCINeoral NCIIsotretinoin NCISpigelia Fluidextract NCIpalmitoleic acid NCIAbsorbine NCIMonoclonal Antibody N901-bR NCICoreg Butoxamine HCl NCICitofolin NCIAmoxil NCIProcyclidine hydrochloride NCIMethylene Chloride NCISC NCIEgtazic Acid NCIValproate NCICD3-Epsilon-Associated Protein NCIDifferentiation Inducer NCIClonoxifen NCIMyristic Acid NCIpiroxantrone NCIMethoxamine NCIDynacirc NCIHexa-Germ NCITrihexyphenidyl Hydrochloride NCIIodamide NCICD11b Antigens NCIAbbokinase

38 Clinical Terms V3 RCDCompound salicylic acid powder RCDExpulin RCDChlorinated phenol disinfectant RCDamyl nitrate RCDVioform Hydrocortisone RCDAlcuronium RCDmethyl isocyanate RCDLopid RCDNeupogen RCDShannon stoma adhesive plaster RCDEolarix vaccine RCDX-porphyrin RCDDeltastab RCDGeref 50 RCDC-Peptide RCDAbidec RCDsoldering flux RCDBuspirone RCDcabergoline RCDDental etching agent RCDE104 RCDAdenoscan RCDFefol-Vit Spansule RCDBudesonide RCDdeteclo RCDRigid gas permeable contact lens preparations RCDCannabis substance RCDlypressin RCDProgynova RCDEndorphins RCDSulparex

39 Metathesaurus SABCUIStr MTHNile Blue MTHManganum sulphuricum, homeopathic preparation MTHDichlorodiphenyldichloroethane MTHWT2 protein MTHNeuraminic acid MTHHemoglobin Parchman MTHEvi-1 protein MTHAesculus hippocastanum, homeopathic preparation MTHsulfur oxide MTHFiboran MTHSynaptotagmin XII MTHchondrocyte expressed protein-68 MTHTantalum MTHProthrombin MTHAlbumin |; dialysis fluid peritoneal MTHTylos Preparation MTHHelicobacter pylori antibody MTHCoccus cacti, Homeopathic preparation MTHEquisetum hyemale, Homeopathic preparation MTHovocleidin-116 MTHBupleurum preparation MTHNux moschata, Homeopathic preparation MTHEar Drops brand of carbamide peroxide MTHSLC5A5 protein, human MTHKeratin-1 MTHPERILLA preparation MTHProstaglandins I MTHPhalaris arundinacea antigen MTHHorse Chestnut Preparation

40 Alcohol and Other Drug Thesaurus SABCUIStr AODThrombin AODProgestins AODOrganic Chemicals AODSulfonylurea Compounds AODChlorpromazine AODPhenacetin AODMetallothionein AODAnti-Infective Agents, Local AODR AODApolipoproteins A AODBeta-glucuronidase AODCinchona Alkaloids AODethanol metabolite AODAcyclovir AODPhosphothreonine AODSulfanilamide AODIgE AODCaptopril AODcompound with nitrogen-nitrogen bond AODexcitatory neurotransmitters AODAscheim-Zondek hormone AODPhenylthiohydantoin AODAnthramycin AODPolysaccharides, Bacterial AODTurpentine AODAliphatic unsaturated hydrocarbon AODHydromorphone Hydrochloride AODNeomycin AODVitamin K

41 Library of Congress Subject Headings SABCUIStr LCHCollodion LCHAuxins LCHMannose LCHVitamin U LCHEthylene LCHNicergoline LCHPlatinum LCHGuanidine LCHIndophenol LCHSpironolactone LCHGlycolipids LCHOxides LCHAmoxicillin LCHDrug vehicle LCHTetrachlorodibenzodioxin LCHEndosulfan LCHCyclacillin LCHEtoposide LCHAmidines LCHVeratrine LCHCharcoal LCHSaralasin LCHAluminum Silicates LCHAminobutyric Acid LCHGlutamine LCHAmino Alcohols LCHacetamide LCHTheophylline LCHAerosols

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