2 What is HIV?HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus and is a type of retrovirus which attacks the human immune system.HIV is spread mainly by having sex or sharing injection drug equipment such as needles with someone who has HIV.The spread of HIV can be stopped through the use of correct protection (condoms).
3 Symptoms of HIV/AIDS Common AIDS symptoms in men include: swollen lymph glands.unusual lesions on the tongue; skin rashes and bumps.nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea.cough and shortness of breath.chronic fatigue.fever, chills, and night sweats.rapid weight loss.blurred or distorted vision.
4 Stages of HIV Infection ACUTE INFECTION – Large amounts of the virus are being produced in the body and many people develop flu-like symptoms.CLINICAL LATENCY – The virus is reproducing at low levels but is still active. People experience little or no symptoms and this period can last for 10 years without treatment or up to several decades with treatment.AIDS – Levels of CD4 cells (a type of white blood cell involved in the immune system) drop dangerously low and people typically survive for only 3 years once they have reached this stage.
6 AIDS in AfricaBetween 1999 and 2000 more people died of AIDS in Africa than in all the wars on the continent, as mentioned by the UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan.The death toll is expected to have a severe impact on many economies in the region. In some nations, it is already being felt. Life expectancies in some nations is already decreasing rapidly, while mortality rates are increasing.“2000 began with 24 million Africans infected with the virus. In the absence of a medical miracle, nearly all will die before Each day, 6,000 Africans die from AIDS. Each day, an additional 11,000 are infected.”Lester R. Brown, HIV Epidemic Restructuring Africa’s Population, World Watch Issue Alert, 31 October 2000
7 HIV/AIDS in SwazilandHIV/AIDS in Swaziland was first reported in 1986 but has since reached epidemic proportions due in large part to cultural beliefs which discourage safe-sex practices. Coupled with a high rate of co-infection with tuberculosis, life expectancy has halved in the first decade of the millennium. Swaziland has the highest prevalence of HIV as percentage of population in the world as of 2012 (26.5%).