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Motorisation development and motorisation saturation – The case of Karlsruhe COST 355 Madrid 11.05.2007 Bastian Chlond Tobias Kuhnimhof Institute for Transport.

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Presentation on theme: "Motorisation development and motorisation saturation – The case of Karlsruhe COST 355 Madrid 11.05.2007 Bastian Chlond Tobias Kuhnimhof Institute for Transport."— Presentation transcript:

1 Motorisation development and motorisation saturation – The case of Karlsruhe COST 355 Madrid 11.05.2007 Bastian Chlond Tobias Kuhnimhof Institute for Transport Studies University of Karlsruhe

2 Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität Karlsruhe COST 355 -Saturation Seite 1 Agenda Motivation Karlsruhe and its transport system The motorisation and its development in the quarters of Karlsruhe influencing factors measures to influence behaviour Conclusions

3 Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität Karlsruhe COST 355 -Saturation Seite 2 Motivation COST 355 - Changing behaviour towards a more sustainable transport system Examples of changed behaviours Heterogeneous development of car ownership rates in Germany Investments in Germany both in Public Transport and Road Infrastructure Wrong investments against the background of increasing car ownership and cohort effects ? Do we have measurable effects of parallel investments ? Do the investments and planning measures / restrictions affect the level of motorisaton?

4 Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität Karlsruhe COST 355 -Saturation Seite 3 Why Karlsruhe? Perhaps a typical European town 275.000 inhabitants (still slowly growing) Mixture of industry, administration, research, education Wealthy region, rated amongst the Top Ten in Germany Karlsruhe is a car town: Carl Benz lived and studied here Rastatt and Wörth are neighboured with car manufacturing plants Other automotive industry Comparably low housing density

5 Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität Karlsruhe COST 355 -Saturation Seite 4 Driving in Karlsruhe - Usability of a car Car driving is all too easy! Spare capacities available! Fair supply in infrastructure Reasonable achievable speeds Parking lots available (Nearly) no congestion Bypassing easily possible

6 Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität Karlsruhe COST 355 -Saturation Seite 5 Why Karlsruhe? Karlsruhe is known as a city for environmentally friendly modes! Cycling A city – mainly – in in the plains Drais – the inventor of the bicycle invented it in Karlsruhe Cycling routes and paths available nearly city-wide Cycling as a real alternative! Public Transport In the 70ies Karlsruhe did not abandon tramway operation Extension of the tramway network both inside the city and more of outside into the region mainly in the 90ies The Karlsruhe-model as the combination of railway and tramway operation

7 Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität Karlsruhe COST 355 -Saturation Seite 6 Public Transport and Cycling

8 Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität Karlsruhe COST 355 -Saturation Seite 7 The Karlsruhe Model – combination and linkage between railways and tramway

9 Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität Karlsruhe COST 355 -Saturation Seite 8 Bad Herrenalb 1957 Ittersbach 1975 Neureut 1979 Hochstetten 1989 Bretten 1992 The extension of the Stadtbahn-System into the region Baden-Baden 1994 Forbach 2002 Wörth 2000 Rastatt Bruchsal 1995 Menzingen und Odenheim 1997 Eppingen Heilbronn Pforzheim Bietigheim- Bissingen Bad Wildbad Maulbronn Rheinstetten 1993 Stutensee 2006 Wolfarts- weier 2004

10 Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität Karlsruhe COST 355 -Saturation Seite 9 Results – Before and after comparison of the demand on new Stadtbahn corridors About 40% of the passengers changed from the car to the Stadtbahn. Does this affect the level of car-ownership in Karlsruhe ?

11 Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität Karlsruhe COST 355 -Saturation Seite 10 Some Figures 365 public transport trips per year and resident 30% of Karlsruhe senior citizens own a season ticket

12 Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität Karlsruhe COST 355 -Saturation Seite 11 Effects of the Public Transport system: Real estate prices Good accessibility of every place in the city and in the region by Public Transport In spite of the economic power moderate price levels for housing and real estate Relatively small range in prices compared with other cities and regions Large suburban region with a lot of commuting 83.000 commuting into KA 26.000 commuting out The ubiqituos availability of Public Transport of high quality smoothens the real estate price differences not only within the city but also within the region!

13 Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität Karlsruhe COST 355 -Saturation Seite 12 Classification of city quarters by public transport accessibility Travel time (TT) to the city center or main station 0 < TT <= 15 min 15 < TT <= 25 min 25 < TT <= 35 min 35 < TT

14 Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität Karlsruhe COST 355 -Saturation Seite 13 Car ownership by public transport accessibility

15 Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität Karlsruhe COST 355 -Saturation Seite 14 Car ownership by population density

16 Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität Karlsruhe COST 355 -Saturation Seite 15 Classification of city quarters by parking availability Not sufficient satisfactory good Very good

17 Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität Karlsruhe COST 355 -Saturation Seite 16 Car ownership by parking availability Very goodgoodsatisfactoryNot sufficient

18 Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität Karlsruhe COST 355 -Saturation Seite 17 Stagnation of motorisation in Karlsruhe

19 Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität Karlsruhe COST 355 -Saturation Seite 18 Categorisation of city quarters Classification of city quarters 1.City-center and Sub-centers 2.Neighboured to center 3.Transition areas 4.Urban Fringe 5.Black forest villages 6.Commercially dominated

20 Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität Karlsruhe COST 355 -Saturation Seite 19 Motorisation development in the different categories of city quarters

21 Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität Karlsruhe COST 355 -Saturation Seite 20 Possible explanations: parking restrictions and charging New planning concepts introduced after 1993 Traffic calming in all housing areas (30 km/h) except the main roads Number of short term parking-lots was massively reduced, the fees were increased by 300%. Parking spaces are always available No car traffic searching for free lots Steady enlargement of the areas where parking is with costs Parking fees in public spaces : 2 / hour in the inner city 1 / hour around the city suburban centers first hour 1,50 any further hour 0,50

22 Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität Karlsruhe COST 355 -Saturation Seite 21 Possible explanations: continous success of carsharing

23 Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität Karlsruhe COST 355 -Saturation Seite 22 Typical Suburbs: the Black Forest Villages Wealthy villages with low unemployment rate Low quality public transport, no car sharing Parking available Few shops

24 Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität Karlsruhe COST 355 -Saturation Seite 23 2004: Opening of new tramway Demographic effect: - 1970 suburb with sufficient parking and low quality public transport - Aging and shrinking population Typical Suburbs: the Black Forest Villages

25 Institut für Verkehrswesen, Universität Karlsruhe COST 355 -Saturation Seite 24 Conclusions In spite of a growing wealth and a reasonable usability of a car a saturation in car-ownership observable Saturation depending from specific situation Successful policies as a combination between parking restrictions enhancement and improvements of Public Transport Investments into the Public Transport system rises the wealth and social balance High level of car ownership does not mean heavy car use A change of trends and in behaviour towards more sustainability is feasible!


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