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Physics Lab 1 Graph Matching Eleanor Roosevelt High School Chin-Sung Lin

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Kinematics Kinematics is a branch of mechanics. It is the science of describing the motion of objects using words, diagrams, numbers, graphs, and equations. The goal of kinematics is to develop models to describe the motion of real-world objects.

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Distance & Displacement

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Scalars & Vectors Scalars are quantities that are fully described by a magnitude (or numerical value) alone. Vectors are quantities that are fully described by both a magnitude and a direction.

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Distance & Displacement Distance is a scalar quantity that refers to "how much ground an object has covered" during its motion. Displacement is a vector quantity that refers to "how far out of place an object is"; it is the object's overall change in position. Distance: 10 m Distance: 10 m Displacement: 10 m East Displacement: 10 m East 10 m

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Distance & Displacement

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Distance/Position t d

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t d

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t d

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Speed & Velocity

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Speed A speed (v) is a scalar quantity Distance (d) covered per unit of time (t). Speed is a measure of how fast something is moving. It is the rate at which distance is covered v = d / t Unit: meters per second (m/s), miles per hour (mi/h), kilometers per hour (km/h)

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Velocity A velocity (v) is a vector quantity Velocity is the measurement of the rate and direction of change in the displacement (d) of an object v = d / t The speed is the magnitude of velocity Unit: meters per second (m/s), miles per hour (mi/h), kilometers per hour (km/h)

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Speed & Velocity Speed has only magnitude Velocity has magnitude and direction

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Speed/Velocity t v

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t v

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t v

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Speed: the slope of the distance-time (d-t) graph t d slope = v (speed)

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Acceleration

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An acceleration (a) is a vector quantity acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with time a = Δv / t a = acceleration (m/s 2 ) v = change of velocity (m/s) t = time interval (s)

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Acceleration An acceleration (a) is also a scalar quantity When linear (straight-line) motion is considered, it is common to use speed and velocity interchangeably and the acceleration may be expressed as the rate at which speed changes a = Δv / t a = acceleration (m/s 2 ) v = change of speed (m/s) t = time interval (s)

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Acceleration t a

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t a

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Acceleration: the slope of the speed-time (v-t) graph t v slope = a x (acceleration)

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Distance, Speed & Acceleration d-t t v slope = a x t a slope = 0 axax t d slope = increasing at constant rate v-t a-t

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The End

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