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Intelligence and Psychological Testing

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Presentation on theme: "Intelligence and Psychological Testing"— Presentation transcript:

1 Intelligence and Psychological Testing

2 Who Is the Most Intelligent?
What is Intelligence? Define….. Who Is the Most Intelligent?

3 Serena Williams Age 22 won a record-setting three Grand Slam tennis titles in a row for an unheard-of 6 Grand Slams Won the 2003 Wimbledon title First woman tennis player to earn $4 million in a single year

4 Bill Gates At age 48 he became the richest man in the US- worth $61 billion He began writing computer programs in 8th grade Wrote one of the first operating systems to run a computer In his 20s he founded Microsoft

5 Kim Ung-Yong Scored a 210 IQ on the Stanford-Binet test and made the Guinness Book of World Records By age 3 he learned differential calculus By age 4 he could read & write 4 languages He received his Ph.D in physics at age 15 and then began work for NASA

6 Midori Age 3 she began playing the violin
She could memorize and flawlessly perform long and complicated pieces of classical music By age 10 she was considered a musical prodigy and played with the NY Philharmonic Orchestra

7 So, who is more intelligence?
It depends how you define intelligence Psychometrics- area of psych concerned with developing intelligence tests & other individual abilities (I.E- skills, beliefs, personality traits)

8 Mental Ability Tests Personality Tests
Psychological Tests Mental Ability Tests Personality Tests Intelligence Aptitude Achievement Intelligence- measures general mental ability Spearman’s Two-Factor Theory: g (general intelligence) & s (specific mental abilities) Aptitude- assess specific types of mental abilities (ex: numerical, abstract reasoning) Achievement- knowledge of various subjects (ex: history, literature, psychology)

9 History of Intelligence Testing
Galton’s Study of Hereditary Genius (late 1800s) Alfred Binet (1904)- 1st intelligence test But NOT first IQ test Mental Age Standford-Binet Test (1916) Revised by Lewis Terman New scoring based on “intelligent quotient” (IQ) IQ = MENTAL AGE x 100 Chronological AGE

10 Standard Intelligence Curve

11 History of Intelligence Testing (cont.)
David Wechsler’s WAIS (1939) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Less dependent on verbal ability (p. 240) New scoring based on a normal distribution Raw scores translated into deviation IQ scores and then into percentile scores (p.241) Extremes (Gifted & Retarded)- 2 SDs from mean

12 Reliability- consistency of a test (similar results upon repetition) To determine reliability you must compute the correlation coefficient between the two sets of scores Most IQ test range into the .90s From .7 to 1.0 are considered acceptable reliability coefficients Low motivation or high anxiety could drag a person’s score down

13 Validity- ability of the test to measure what it was designed to
Are IQ tests valid? They measure the kind of intelligence that’s necessary to do well in academic work (abstract reasoning & verbal fluency) Positive correlations have been found between IQ scores and school grades (.5-.6) The IQ test cannot assess intelligence in a broader sense (practical problem solving, social competence, creativity, etc)

14 Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Contexual Experimental Componential Contexual- behaviors considered intelligent by a given culture (Adaptation Selection Shaping) Experimental- relationship between experience and intelligence (Novelty Automation) Componential- types of mental processes that intelligent thought depends on (practical, analytical, & creative)

15 Sternberg: Why Intelligent people fail
lack of motivation lack of impulse control lack of perseverance fear of failure procrastination inability to delay gratification too little/too much self-confidence

16 Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences

17 Creativity & Intelligence
RAT Test- based on the assumption that creative people see unusual relationships between items No correlation between creativity & intelligence Correlation between creativity & mental disorders General population: 15% has a mood disorder Writers & artists: 50% Composers: 45%

18 Test your creativity What does it say about you?? Lets score it and see!

19 Hereditary v. Environment
Twin & Adoption Studies (p.245) Heritability Ratio Cumulative Deprivation Hypothesis Reaction Range (p.247) Flynn Effect

20 Cultural Differences in IQ
Jensen’s Heritability Explanation & the controversial “Bell Curve” Stereotype Vulnerability Cultural Bias on IQ Tests (take the cultural bias test)

21 Fluid v. Crystallized Intelligence
Involves reasoning ability, memory capacity, & speed of information processing Crystallized Ability to apply acquired knowledge and skills to problem solving

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