2 Who Is the Most Intelligent? What is Intelligence?Define…..Who Is the Most Intelligent?
3 Serena WilliamsAge 22 won a record-setting three Grand Slam tennis titles in a row for an unheard-of 6 Grand SlamsWon the 2003 Wimbledon titleFirst woman tennis player to earn $4 million in a single year
4 Bill GatesAt age 48 he became the richest man in the US- worth $61 billionHe began writing computer programs in 8th gradeWrote one of the first operating systems to run a computerIn his 20s he founded Microsoft
5 Kim Ung-YongScored a 210 IQ on the Stanford-Binet test and made the Guinness Book of World RecordsBy age 3 he learned differential calculusBy age 4 he could read & write 4 languagesHe received his Ph.D in physics at age 15 and then began work for NASA
6 Midori Age 3 she began playing the violin She could memorize and flawlessly perform long and complicated pieces of classical musicBy age 10 she was considered a musical prodigy and played with the NY Philharmonic Orchestra
7 So, who is more intelligence? It depends how you define intelligencePsychometrics- area of psych concerned with developing intelligence tests & other individual abilities (I.E- skills, beliefs, personality traits)
8 Mental Ability Tests Personality Tests Psychological TestsMental Ability Tests Personality TestsIntelligence Aptitude AchievementIntelligence- measures general mental abilitySpearman’s Two-Factor Theory: g (general intelligence) & s (specific mental abilities)Aptitude- assess specific types of mental abilities (ex: numerical, abstract reasoning)Achievement- knowledge of various subjects (ex: history, literature, psychology)
9 History of Intelligence Testing Galton’s Study of Hereditary Genius (late 1800s)Alfred Binet (1904)- 1st intelligence testBut NOT first IQ testMental AgeStandford-Binet Test (1916)Revised by Lewis TermanNew scoring based on “intelligent quotient” (IQ)IQ = MENTAL AGE x 100Chronological AGE
11 History of Intelligence Testing (cont.) David Wechsler’s WAIS (1939)Wechsler Adult Intelligence ScaleLess dependent on verbal ability (p. 240)New scoring based on a normal distributionRaw scores translated into deviation IQ scores and then into percentile scores (p.241)Extremes (Gifted & Retarded)- 2 SDs from mean
12 Reliability-consistency of a test (similar results upon repetition)To determine reliability you must compute the correlation coefficient between the two sets of scoresMost IQ test range into the .90sFrom .7 to 1.0 are considered acceptable reliability coefficientsLow motivation or high anxiety could drag a person’s score down
13 Validity- ability of the test to measure what it was designed to Are IQ tests valid?They measure the kind of intelligence that’s necessary to do well in academic work (abstract reasoning & verbal fluency)Positive correlations have been found between IQ scores and school grades (.5-.6)The IQ test cannot assess intelligence in a broader sense (practical problem solving, social competence, creativity, etc)
14 Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence ContexualExperimental ComponentialContexual- behaviors considered intelligent by a given culture (Adaptation Selection Shaping)Experimental- relationship between experience and intelligence (Novelty Automation)Componential- types of mental processes that intelligent thought depends on (practical, analytical, & creative)
15 Sternberg: Why Intelligent people fail lack of motivationlack of impulse controllack of perseverancefear of failureprocrastinationinability to delay gratificationtoo little/too much self-confidence
16 Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences TAKE THE TEST!
17 Creativity & Intelligence RAT Test- based on the assumption that creative people see unusual relationships between itemsNo correlation between creativity & intelligenceCorrelation between creativity & mental disordersGeneral population: 15% has a mood disorderWriters & artists: 50%Composers: 45%
18 Test your creativityWhat does it say about you?? Lets score it and see!
19 Hereditary v. Environment Twin & Adoption Studies (p.245)Heritability RatioCumulative Deprivation HypothesisReaction Range (p.247)Flynn Effect
20 Cultural Differences in IQ Jensen’s Heritability Explanation & the controversial “Bell Curve”Stereotype VulnerabilityCultural Bias on IQ Tests (take the cultural bias test)
21 Fluid v. Crystallized Intelligence Involves reasoning ability, memory capacity, & speed of information processingCrystallizedAbility to apply acquired knowledge and skills to problem solving