Presentation on theme: "Theories of Motivation Kaitlyn, Paul, Trevor, and Wesley."— Presentation transcript:
Theories of Motivation Kaitlyn, Paul, Trevor, and Wesley
What is Motivation? ? MMotivation is a need or desire that energizes and directs a behavior.
Drive Reduction Theory The theory that our behavior is motivated by biological needs A need is one of our requirements for survival, for example: food and water A drive is an impulse to act in a way to satisfy our needs.
Primary and Secondary Drives A primary drive is a biological need. A secondary drive is a learned drive. An example of a secondary drive is: we learn that money can get us food and water to satisfy our primary drives, therefore we desire money.
Arousal Theory States that we seek an optimum level of excitement or arousal. Each of us has a different need for excitement or arousal, we are motivated by activities that will help us achieve this level We might perform well at an easy task with a very high level of arousal, but the same high level of arousal would prevent us from performing well on a difficult task, this is called Yerkes-Dodson law.
Opponent-process Theory of Motivation This theory is often used to explain addictive behaviors. This theory states that people are usually at a normal, or baseline, state. Some actions, such as smoking, may initially be pleasurable, but the theory states we will eventually feel an opponent process, or a motivation to return to our baseline, neutral state.
Incentive Theory Behavior is not pushed by a need, it is pulled by a desire (Environment brings out behaviors) Incentives are stimuli that we are drawn to due to learning We learn to associate some stimuli with rewards and some with punishment, we are motivated to seek the rewards. ON SALE!!! 50% OFF!! OMG!!!
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Psychologist Abraham Maslow pointed out: not all needs are created equal, he described a hierarchy of need that predicts which needs we will be motivated to satisfy first. The Hierarchy suggest that people are motivated to fulfill basic needs before moving on to other needs.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
The First Stage: Physiological Needs physiological needs are obvious – these needs are the literal requirements for human survival. EX: Air, water, and food
The Second Stage: Safety Needs Need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; need to feel safe, secure, and stable. EX: Personal security, Financial security, Health and well-being.
The Third Stage: Love and Belonging NEED After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third layer of human needs are social, and involve feelings of belongingness. Need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted; need to avoid loneliness and alienation
Need for self esteem, achievement, competence and independence; need for recognition and respect from others. (understand self worth and how their life has contributed to others). The Fourth Stage: Esteem Needs
The Fifth Stage: Self-Actualization Needs Need to live up to ones fullest potential by reaching the end of a goal. Maslow describes this desire as: “the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming.”