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Theories of Motivation Kaitlyn, Paul, Trevor, and Wesley.

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Presentation on theme: "Theories of Motivation Kaitlyn, Paul, Trevor, and Wesley."— Presentation transcript:

1 Theories of Motivation Kaitlyn, Paul, Trevor, and Wesley

2 What is Motivation? ? MMotivation is a need or desire that energizes and directs a behavior.

3 Drive Reduction Theory  The theory that our behavior is motivated by biological needs  A need is one of our requirements for survival, for example: food and water  A drive is an impulse to act in a way to satisfy our needs.

4 Primary and Secondary Drives  A primary drive is a biological need.  A secondary drive is a learned drive.  An example of a secondary drive is: we learn that money can get us food and water to satisfy our primary drives, therefore we desire money.

5 Arousal Theory  States that we seek an optimum level of excitement or arousal.  Each of us has a different need for excitement or arousal, we are motivated by activities that will help us achieve this level  We might perform well at an easy task with a very high level of arousal, but the same high level of arousal would prevent us from performing well on a difficult task, this is called Yerkes-Dodson law.

6 Yerkes-Dodson law

7 Opponent-process Theory of Motivation  This theory is often used to explain addictive behaviors.  This theory states that people are usually at a normal, or baseline, state.  Some actions, such as smoking, may initially be pleasurable, but the theory states we will eventually feel an opponent process, or a motivation to return to our baseline, neutral state.

8 Incentive Theory  Behavior is not pushed by a need, it is pulled by a desire (Environment brings out behaviors)  Incentives are stimuli that we are drawn to due to learning  We learn to associate some stimuli with rewards and some with punishment, we are motivated to seek the rewards. ON SALE!!! 50% OFF!! OMG!!!

9 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Psychologist Abraham Maslow pointed out: not all needs are created equal, he described a hierarchy of need that predicts which needs we will be motivated to satisfy first.  The Hierarchy suggest that people are motivated to fulfill basic needs before moving on to other needs.

10 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

11 The First Stage: Physiological Needs  physiological needs are obvious – these needs are the literal requirements for human survival. EX: Air, water, and food

12 The Second Stage: Safety Needs  Need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; need to feel safe, secure, and stable. EX: Personal security, Financial security, Health and well-being.

13 The Third Stage: Love and Belonging NEED  After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third layer of human needs are social, and involve feelings of belongingness.  Need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted; need to avoid loneliness and alienation

14  Need for self esteem, achievement, competence and independence; need for recognition and respect from others.  (understand self worth and how their life has contributed to others). The Fourth Stage: Esteem Needs

15 The Fifth Stage: Self-Actualization Needs  Need to live up to ones fullest potential by reaching the end of a goal.  Maslow describes this desire as: “the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming.”


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