5.1 Supervision and Leadership Leadership: The activity of influencing people to strive willingly for group objectives. A supervisor: is the leader of a group which has a set target to be achieved in a given time.
5.1.1 Supervision Close Supervision General Supervision
184.108.40.206 Close Supervision It reduces the worker’s effectiveness. It implies that they are incompetent which leads to low morale. Jobs that require high quality require close supervision. New workers need close supervision.
220.127.116.11 General Supervision Gives employees chance to develop their talents. They take pride in their work improve productivity & show less absenteeism.
5.1.2 Leadership Interpersonal influence exercised in a situation and directed through the communication process toward the attainment of a specialized goal or goals. The person who INFLUENCES people is called Leader. They derived their authority from the group & not imposing it upon them.
5.1.3 Leadership Traits Leaders are self confident, well-integrated and emotionally stable. They want to take leadership & are competent in handling new Situations. They identify with the goals & values of the groups they lead. They are warm, sensitive and sympathetic toward other people. And given practical suggestions. They are intelligent in relation to other group member.
5.1.4 Leadership Styles They use style that is consistent with their presentations. The style reflects their desire to be efficient not the need to be autocratic. Leaders are not born but developed. Classification of leadership style: Autocratic. Participative. Free-reign.
18.104.22.168 Autocratic Leaders Give orders for everything and provide no freedom of work for subordinates. Instructions are straight forward. One way communication style leads to misunderstanding & subsequent error. May result in poor decisions. Ok in crises.
22.214.171.124 Participative Leaders They invite participation. Concerned about their relations with subordinates. Democratic leaders: Confer final authority on the group. Consultative leaders: Require a great deal of involvement but will make final decision. Participative leaders: Expect constant feedback This style consume time.
126.96.36.199 Free-reign Leaders They are completely non-directional. Give complete freedom to decide to group. Offers the greatest use of time & resources. Seen among professionals like: Engineers Teachers scientists
5.7 Need Theories 5.7.1 Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Model 188.8.131.52 Practical Implications 5.7.2 Herzberg’s Motivation 184.108.40.206 Hygiene Factors 220.127.116.11 Motivation Factors 5.7.3 McClellands’s Three Needs Model 5.7.1 Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Model 18.104.22.168 Practical Implications 5.7.2 Herzberg’s Motivation 22.214.171.124 Hygiene Factors 126.96.36.199 Motivation Factors 5.7.3 McClellands’s Three Needs Model
5.7 Need Theories Focuses on: The importance of analyzing & understanding the psychological factors with individuals that cause them to behave in certain ways.
5.7.1 Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Model…(1) Five basic human needs which constitutes a hierarchy. Physiological Needs Security or safety Needs Affiliation or acceptance Needs Esteem-needs Need for self- actualization
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy…(2) Level 1: Physiological Needs include Food, Air, Sleep, Shelter, Sex etc. Level 2: Safety Needs: Clothing, shelter, an environment with predictable pattern, job security, pension, insurance etc. Level 3: Social Needs: To be liked by others, to be a wanted member, to belong to a group.
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy…(3) Level 4: Esteem Needs: Self respect sense of achievement, recognition status & prestige important. Level 5: Self- actualization Needs: fulfilling the potentials & becoming everything is capable to becoming. Example: becoming the ideal mother or father, becoming the best jogger.
188.8.131.52 Practical Implications…(1) Employees who want to have a house: Attention goes to wages, Salaries. Compliments with not be enough. New employees need to be quickly accepted into the work group. A well-implemented orientation program will help. The hierarchy of the needs is not always followed in a rigid pattern. There are reversals & substitutions.
Practical Implications…(2) Needs are relatives in their strength & are individualistic. Lower need does not necessarily have to be fulfilled completely before higher needs emerges.
5.7.2 Herzberg’s Motivation (Hygiene Theory العوامل الوقائية ) Developed his theory after surveying hundred of accountants, engineers & other. Needs of Individuals into 2 categories: Hygiene factors or dissatisfies. Motivation factors or satisfiers.
Herzberg’s hygiene & Motivating factors Group l Hygiene factors Money & compensation Personal life Working conditions Working relationships Status Job security Company policy & administration Quality of supervision Group ll Motivation factors Challenging work Added responsibility Advancement Recognition of good work Personal growth
184.108.40.206 Hygiene Factors They are dissatisfies because: If all of the them are adequately met people will not be dissatisfies. Hence: Their adequacy does not really motivate people. However: It any of the hygiene factor is not met, dissatisfaction occur.
220.127.116.11 Motivation Factors They are aspects of the task or work itself. Job with these characteristics means: it bears the motivational factors.
5.7.3 McClellands’s Three Needs Model Everybody possesses these needs in varying degrees Characteristics of peopleNeeds People with high achievement needs thrive on jobs & projects. Goal-oriented people Needs for achievement They seek to dominate, influence or control over people. Needs for power They value interpersonal relationships. Exhibits sensitivity towards other people’s feelings Needs for affiliation