Presentation on theme: "The vision that changed the world"— Presentation transcript:
1The vision that changed the world 4Fred Smith and FedEx:The vision that changed the worldUnit 3 Section A1
2Being entrepreneurial A manager is not a person who can do the work better than his men; he is a person who can get his men to do the work better than he can.—Frederick W. Smith(American businessman, founder of FedEx)The secret of business is to know something that nobody else knows.—Aristotle Onassis(Greek shipping magnate)43UNITBeing entrepreneurial2
3Section A 4 3 Being entrepreneurial Fred Smith and FedEx: UNITFred Smith and FedEx:The vision that changed the worldSection ATo talk about the entrepreneurial spiritObjectivesTo further understand the textTo apply the phrases and patternsTo master the essay writing skill
4A Contents Fred Smith and FedEx: The vision that changed the world SectionWarming-up ActivitiesText StudyLanguage ApplicationSummary
5A Fred Smith and FedEx: The vision that changed the world SectionWarming-up ActivitiesLead-inPre-reading ActivitiesCultural Background
61. What is an entrepreneur? An entrepreneur is an individual who accepts some sort of risk — usually financial — in the pursuit of new business. The word can apply to any person organizing a new project or opportunity, though it is most often used in business world.
7an intense level of strong determination and willingness to work hard; 2. What are the good qualities of an entrepreneur?great ability to lead;an intense level of strong determination andwillingness to work hard;being innovative and creative;a strong motivation towards the achievement of atask;the ability to establish good relations with peoplearound;......
8Picture DescriptionAnswer the following questions briefly based on the given pictures.1. What do you know about these people and theircompanies?2. What personality traits do successful entrepreneurshave in common?
9Picture Description1. What do you know about these people and theircompanies?The man in the first picture is Steve Jobs, cofounder and former chairman and CEO of Apple Inc.;The man in the second picture is Mark Zuckerberg, founder of Facebook, the world’s largest social networking website;The men in the third picture are Larry Page and Sergey Brin, co-founders of Google Inc.
10Picture Description2. What personality traits do successful entrepreneurshave in common?Successful entrepreneurs have many personality traits in common, such as strong leadership qualities, high motivation, great determination, willingness to fail, competitive spirit, budget-mindedness, etc.
11traditional offer be limited to The __________ definition of an entrepreneur is a person who organizes and accepts the risks of a new business. Entrepreneurs may have a new product or service to _____. Or they may have ideas for new ways to do business.But an entrepreneurial spirit does not have to ___________ the business world.Listen to a short passage concerning entrepreneur and fill in the missing information.To be continuedtraditionalofferbe limited to
12Listen to a short passage concerning entrepreneur and fill in the missing information. Lately we hear more and more about social entrepreneurs. What they do is _______; they might even act like business entrepreneurs. They might ______ money in projects or get others to support them.But social entrepreneurs say they are not ______ by a desire for profits.To be continuedsimilarinvestguided
13Listen to a short passage concerning entrepreneur and fill in the missing information. Their most important goal, they say, is to create social value. They organize and support programs that ______ improve conditions in communities.Social entrepreneurs say they look for solutions to needs without leaving them to government or industry to solve. And they say they try to _______ the solution. In other words, to change the system,aim tospreadTo be continued
14positionListen to a short passage concerning entrepreneur and fill in the missing information.they try to get whole societies to change.There are many historical examples of people who might be called social entrepreneurs. Susan B. Anthony, for example, _________ women's rights in the United States. Vinoba Bhave created the Land Gift Movement to help India's poor and ________.fought forlandless
151. What do you know about “the Millionaire’s Unit”? Cultural BackgroundQuestions Previewing1. What do you know about “the Millionaire’s Unit”?2. What do you know about the “hub and spoke” system?Tips
16What do you know about “the Millionaire’s Unit”? Cultural BackgroundWhat do you know about “the Millionaire’s Unit”?It is the nickname for the First Yale Unit, a naval air reserve unit considered to be the first in the United States. It was started by F. Trubee Davison, a Yale sophomore at the time, in The unit had 29 members who were all wealthy and fascinated by flying. Their intention was to learn to fly airplanes so as to develop American’s military aviation.
172. What do you know about the “hub and spoke” system? Cultural Background2. What do you know about the “hub and spoke” system?It is a system which makes transportation much more efficient by routing all of the traffic through one or a few central hubs. The FedEx company took advantage of this idea in the 1970s, revolutionizing the way airlines were run. Now the model is extensively used in commercial aviation for both passengers and freight.
18A Fred Smith and FedEx: The vision that changed the world Text Study SectionMain Idea & StructureLanguage FocusCritical ThinkingText Study
19What is the typical scene at Memphis Airport every night? (Para.1) TipsCrews unload the plane’s cargo;The packages and envelopes are rapidly reshuffled and sorted according to address;Then they are loaded onto other aircraft, and flown to their destinations – many within 24 hours of leaving their senders.19
20Can you find the topic sentence in Paragraph 2? TipsSmith is recognized as an outstanding entrepreneur with an agreeable and winning personality.20
21Part I — Para. 1 – __2Beginning a typical scene in FedEx’s business and a basic introduction of Fred Smith, this part brings out the main topic and thesis of the essay: Smith is “__________________________________________________________________________________”.recognized as an outstandingEntrepreneur with an agreeable andwinning personality
22Para. 3As a juvenile, Smith was ______, suffering from a disease. He was _________by bullies, but he learned to ______ himself. He was cured of the disease at 10 and became a __________in high school.invalidpicked ondefendstar athlete22
23How did Smith’s passion for flying influence his university life? (Para. 4) TipsHe helped revive the Yale flying club; Smith administrated the club’s business end and ran a small charter operation in New Haven.23
24What did Smith do in his term paper for his economics class What did Smith do in his term paper for his economics class? How was the paper evaluated by his professor? (Para. 5)TipsHe drafted a prototype for a transportation company that would guarantee express delivery service — sending small and time-sensitive goods to major US regions overnight. The professor wasn’t impressed by the idea and told Smith it wasn’t feasible.24
25Paras. 6 – 7Smith was certain he was ______________. After graduation, he _______________during the Vietnam War. In Vietnam, he learned that leadership meant getting a group of people to ___________ their individual desires and ambitions for the achievement of organizational goals.onto somethingjoin the Marinessubordinate25
26Paras. 8 – 9Home from Vietnam, Smith decided to ____________ starting his own business. The early days __________________ extreme frugality and financial losses. But they still ________________ to ensure a good medical and dental plan for their employees.take a stab atwere underscored byset the precedent26
27efficient management system Paras. 10 – 11FedEx pioneered ____________and the _______________system. Smith says success in business ____________ three elements: an appealing product or service, an__________________________, good leadership.centralization“hub and spoke”boils down toefficient management system27
28Part II — Paras. 3 – 11It introduces Smith and his entrepreneurship. First it focuses mainly on Smith’s __________________, including his school years and military days. Then, it talks about how Smith put his ideas into practice and analyzes the ____________of his business success.early life experiencekey elements
29Part III — Para. 12Smith’s great concern for his employees illustrates his P-S-P philosophy (___________________), which is just like an unbroken circle or chain.People, Service, Profit
30IntroductionBasic introduction to Smith and his FedEx company. (Para. 1)Smith is “recognized as an outstanding entrepreneur with an agreeable and winning personality”. (Para. 2)
31Introduction Body Section One: Section Two: Smith’s early life Experiences.(Paras. 3-7)Section Two:Smith’s businessexperience.(Paras. 8-11)
32Introduction Body Section One: Smith’s early life Experiences. Smith’s childhood and high schoolyears. (Para. 3)Section One:Smith’s early lifeExperiences.(Paras. 3-7)Smith’s interest in flying and hissuccessful management of the Yaleflying club while in college. (Para. 4)Blueprint of his business – his paperfor the economics class. (Para. 5)Smith’s military experience and whathe learned from it. (Paras. 6-7)
33Introduction Body Section Two: Smith’s business experience. Smith’s business idea put into practicepractice. (Para. 8)Section Two:Smith’s businessexperience.(Paras. 8-11)Difficulties in the early stage of hisbusiness as well as his great concernfor his employees. (Para. 9)Smith’s business success secrets: a“hub and spoke” system and the threekey points he concluded. (Paras )
34Introduction Body Conclusion Further description of Smith’s friendly and agreeable personality and thesignificance of his P-S-P philosophy.(Para. 12)
36The vision that changed the world Fred Smith and FedEx:The vision that changed the worldFrederick W. Smith is the founder of the FedEx Corp., the largest and most successful _______________________. He is recognized as an outstanding entrepreneur who is _________________ by both his competitors and employees. As a juvenile, he suffered from a disease and was often ________ by bullies. But his passionovernight delivery serviceheld in high regardpicked onTo be continued
37passion for flying increased as he grew up passion for flying increased as he grew up. At Yale University, he helped to _____ the Yale flying club. In a term paper for an economics class, he ________________ for a transportation company that ensure overnight delivery of small and ____________ goods, but the professor said it wasn’t _______. After graduation, he _________________and went to Vietnam. During his military days, he learned goodrevivedrafted a prototypetime-sensitivefeasiblejoined the MarinesTo be continued
38Leadership ________________________a company Leadership ________________________a company. Home from Vietnam, he decided to ___________ starting his own business but the early days __________________ extreme frugality and financial losses. In spite of difficulties, he still _______________to ensure good medical plan. He said success in business ______________ three elements: appealing product or service, __________________________, and good leadership.had measureable effects ontake a stab atwere underscored byset the precedentboiled down toefficient management system
39Practical Phrases Specific Meanings 1. touch down（飞机等）降落，着落2. hold sb. /sth. in high regard敬重；尊重3. pick on sb.找…的茬；与… 过不去4. be onto sth.发现新事物；制造出有趣的事物5. take /have/make a stab at(doing) sth.试图（做）某事；尝试（做）某事6. boil down to sth.（能）归结为…
40短语应用 意群提示 （飞机等）降落，着落 短语逆译 touch down 尽管天气恶劣，直升机飞行员还是设法安全地着陆在航空母舰的甲板上。 (touch down safely/deck/aircraft carrier)Despite the terrible weather, the pilot of thehelicopter managed to touch down safely on thedeck of the aircraft carrier.
41短语应用 意群提示 敬重；尊重 短语逆译 hold sb./sth. in high regard 学生们感到非常兴奋，因为他们所敬重的人同意当他们的指导老师。意群提示(hold in high regard/ act as/mentors)The students were excited that people they held in high regard agreed to act as their mentors.
42短语应用 意群提示 找…的茬；与… 过不去 短语逆译 pick on sb. 一想到两个大人欺负一个天真的小孩，我就满腔怒火。 (make one’s blood boil/pick on)It makes my blood boil to think two adults decided to pick on an innocent kid.
43短语应用 意群提示 发现新事物； 制造出有趣的事物 短语逆译 be onto sth. 考古学家在发掘之初就知道他们将有重大发现。 (archaeologists/be onto something/dig)Archaeologists knew they were onto something big when they started digging.
44短语应用 意群提示 试图（做）某事；尝试（做）某事 take/have/make a stab at (doing) sth. 短语逆译 警察局公布了案情的新细节，再次试图找到这个神秘的抢劫犯。意群提示(release/ in an effort/ make a new stab at)The police station released new details in the case, in an effort to make a new stab at finding the mysterious robber.
45短语应用 意群提示 （能）归结为… 短语逆译 boil down to sth. 大多数犯罪可以归结为金钱问题。 (boil down) Most of the crimes may boil down to the question of money.
46Functional Patterns Functions & Usages 1. Recognized/acknowledged as …, sb. is held in highregard by…用于说明“某人受尊重的程度”。2. In the interim, sb. does sth.,just as sth. is happening.用于表达“同一时间段内发生的事情”。3. It is not uncommon for sb. todo sth.双重否定表示肯定，表达“某人经常做某事”。46
47原句译文 逆译练习 史密斯被公认为是一位和蔼可亲、性格迷人的杰出企业家。无论是他的竞争者、员工，还是他公司股票的持有人，都对他十分敬重。 Recognized as an outstanding entrepreneur with an agreeable and winning personality, Smith is held in high regard by his competitors as well as his employees and stockholders.句型提炼47
48句型提炼 应用提示 Recognized/Acknowledged as …, Sb. is held in high regard by… 用于说明“某人受尊重的程度”。句型应用48
49典型例句 意群提示 比尔·盖茨被公认为是世界上最伟大的慈善家之一，社会各个阶层的人都对他十分敬重。 (philanthropist/ all walks of life)Widely recognized as one of the greatest philanthropists in the world, Bill Gates is held in high regard by people from all walks of life.
50原句译文 逆译练习 在此期间，他于1966 年从耶鲁大学毕业，那时正值美国在越战中越陷越深。 In the interim, he graduated from Yale in 1966, just as American’s involvement in the Vietnam War was deepening.句型提炼50
51句型提炼 应用提示 In the interim, sb. does sth., just as sth. is happening. 用于表达“同一时间段内发生的事情”。句型应用51
52典型例句 意群提示 在此期间，他在1976年被诊断患有癌症，那时饥荒和干旱正威胁着他的祖国。 (be diagnosed with/ famine and drought )In the interim, he was diagnosed with cancer in 1976, just as famine and drought were threatening his motherland.
53原句译文 逆译练习 联邦快递公司的司机自己掏腰包为货车付汽油费的情况屡见不鲜。 It was uncommon for FedEx drivers to pay for gasoline for their vans out of their own pockets.句型提炼53
54句型提炼 应用提示 It is not uncommon for sb. to do sth. 双重否定表示肯定，表达“某人经常做某事”。 句型应用54
55典型例句 意群提示 对于城市孩子来说，无法区分韭菜和麦子，这种现象屡见不鲜。 (distinguish from/leek) 对于城市孩子来说，无法区分韭菜和麦子，这种现象屡见不鲜。 意群提示(distinguish from/leek)It is not uncommon for city children to fail to distinguish leek from wheat.
56如今，史密斯这一源于大学时代的妙想已在现实中经营到了第28 个年头，并已成为包裹快递入户行业的标杆。 a. Conceived when he was in college and now in the 28th year of operation, Smith’s exquisite brainchild has become the standard for door-to-door package delivery.(Para. 1, L10)
57史密斯被公认为是一位和蔼可亲、性格迷人的杰出企业家。无论是他的竞争者、员工，还是他公司股票的持有人，都对他十分敬重。 b. Recognized as an outstanding entrepreneur with an agreeable and winning personality, Smith is held in high regard by his competitors as well as his employees and stockholders. (Para. 2, L1)
58在军队中，领导力意味着能使团队中所有成员将个人的期望与抱负置于从属地位，而以实现集体目标为重。 c. In the military, leadership means getting a group of people to subordinate their individual desires and ambitions for the achievement of organizational goals. (Para. 7, L1)
59通过明确表达并亲身践行这一理念，弗雷德里克·史密斯已成为未来成功所必需的新领导领域的开拓者。 d. In articulating this philosophy and in personally involving himself in tis implementation, Frederick Smith is the forerunner of the new sphere of leadership that success in the future will demand. (Para. 12, L8)
601. What challenges do you think the express delivery services in China are presentlyfaced with?2. Smith overcame many difficulties in his life toachieve success. How do you deal withnegative experiences in your life?3. What elements do you consider as mostimportant for business success?Tips
61To me, the challenges faced by the express 1. What challenges do you think the express deliveryservices in China are presently faced with?To me, the challenges faced by the expressdelivery services in China include:• highly effective transportation system not yetestablished;• relatively expensive transportation fees;• compensation system for loss or damage ofpackages not yet completed.
62as a process of learning; • Treat them as chances to overcome my 2. Smith overcame many difficulties in his life to achievesuccess. How do you deal with negative experiencesin your life?• Psychologically accept negative experiencesas a process of learning;• Treat them as chances to overcome myweaknesses;• Improve my ability to make the best of everyexperience, including negative ones.
633. What elements do you consider as most important for business success?• Leadership ability• Strategic plans• An efficient production and management system• Well-motivated employees• High-quality products• Great marketing and customer services• Innovative spirit
64Chinese students with a pioneering spirit can now defer their studies to start their own business, according to China’s Education Ministry. Please air your views on the following question: Should college graduates start their own Business? With the competition in the job market becoming increasingly fierce for college graduates, some ambitiousstudents have made a stab at starting their own business. Over the years, there have been many successful cases of student entrepreneurship and such attempts should be encouraged by both the universities and the society.College students who start businesses are pioneers. to be continued
65Chinese students with a pioneering spirit can now defer their studies to start their own business, according to China’s Education Ministry. Please air your views on the following question: Should college graduates start their own business? Faced with unknown challenges, they are brave enough to go on a risky journey. Exposed to many uncertainties, they develop perseverance, and determination that are indispensible to all the great entrepreneurs. Even if they fail, they keep exploring for new business opportunities and work tirelessly until they succeed. As people of vision, initiative, leadership and creativity and innovation, they represent the future and the hope of a nation.
66Watch a video clip and discuss some questions. Q: What advice did the speakers give us to start business and become entrepreneurs?TipsVideo Watching
68What advice did the speakers give us to start business and become entrepreneurs? Go and work with your heroes. Go learn from them;Starting is the most important step. Once you makethat step, what you have to do is to trust the process;As for product building, use “mom test” strategy todescribe products to customers;Being passionate is the key.…
69A Fred Smith and FedEx: The vision that changed the world SectionLanguage ApplicationWriting DevicesOral ReproductionParagraph Translation
70Write a narrative with biographical information A biographical narrative essay is an illustration of certain points the author has about a person. In a way, it is similar to an argumentation, with all the facts of the person’s life as evidence. In structure, like any other type of essay, a biographical narrative essay includes an introduction, body and conclusion.When writing the introduction of a biographical narrative essay, you can start by giving some general facts about the chosen person: Who isto be continued
71Write a narrative with biographical information he? What is he famous for? Why is he special to you? In addition, you can include a significant event about the person to make your beginning more motivating. After these beginning sentences, you need to compose a thesis statement, that is, the main message or theme you want to convince the reader about the person through your essay.When writing the body, you should give details that prove your thesis statement and giveto be continued
72• What are the important dates in the person’s life? Write a narrative with biographical informationinsights to your subject’s personality. Consider these questions while selecting the details:• What are the important dates in the person’slife?• Is there something in the person’s childhoodthat shaped his personality?• What personality traits drive him to success ormake him special?• Are there any critical turning points in his life?to be continued
73• What are the person’s major achievements? Write a narrative with biographical information• What are the person’s major achievements?• What is the person’s impact on history orsociety?When you write the conclusion of the essay, you can summarize your main points and reassert your major claim about the person, but be sure not to repeat specific examples.
74Let’s take Text A as an example and figure out how it is organized as a biographical narrative essay.
75Introduction:With a description of a FedEx business scene and some general facts about Fred Smith, the introduction brings out the main topic and the thesis of the essay: Smith is “recognized as an outstanding entrepreneur with an agreeable and winning personality”.Body :It gives an account of Smith’s most important early life experiences, as well as some important details which show him as an outstanding entrepreneur.Conclusion:It restates Smith’s personality and closes with the significance of his business philosophy.
76Read the following outline and the sample essay, and try to find out how it develops as a biographical narrative essay.
771. Wide range of interests: Classics Science Sports Introduction:Zuckerberg’s wide range of interests and great enthusiasm, as well as his achievements, make him one of the most remarkable young men of our time.Body:1. Wide range of interests:ClassicsScienceSportsto be continued
78Restatement of the theme 2. Enthusiasm:Creation of FacebookDevotion to workConclusion:Restatement of the themeSample
79Sample:Mark Elliot Zuckerberg is an American computer programmer and Internet entrepreneur. Born on May 14, 1984 in New York, he is best known as one of the co-founders of the social networking site Facebook. His wide range of interests and great enthusiasm, as well as his achievements, make him one of the most remarkable young men of our time.to be continued
80Sample:Zuckerberg's interests cover a variety of areas. During his high school years, he showed great interest in the classics. In Phillips Exeter Academy, he won prizes in science (math, astronomy and physics) and classical studies. Then in college, he was well known for his ability to recite ancient poems such as The Iliad. But don’t take him as a bookworm. He was also a fencing (击剑运动) star and captain of the fencing team.to be continued
81Sample:When an interest develops into a career, enthusiasm plays a more important role. In 2004 when he was still a student at Harvard, Zuckerberg’s expertise in computer science led his way into the creation and construction of the public community platform, Facebook. He and his teammates devoted a lot of energy and time into the project and overcame many unexpected difficulties. It is the enthusiasm of creation that really drove him and his mates.to be continued
82Sample:As Zuckerberg explained in an interview in 2007: “For me and my colleagues, the most important thing is that we create an open information flow for people.”Right now, you may be enjoying the great convenience of communicating with your friends and other people around the world on Facebook. Much of the convenience comes from Zuckerberg’s wide range of interests and his great enthusiasm toward work. Though very young, Zuckerberg has established himself as one of the most successful entrepreneurs of our time.
83Writing practiceDirections: Write a biographical narrative essay of no less than 200 words on one of the following topics. One topic has an outline you can follow.
84Topic:A successful personIntroduction:• Basic introduction of the person• Main message of your essayBody:• Early life experiences (Family, education, etc.)• Start of his career of great project• Difficulties encountered along the way• Personal traits related to his successConclusion:Restatement of the most impressive traits of the person
85More topics:• A famous person in Chinese history• A person close to you or you admire most
86Make a speech on the following topic. Suppose you are to give a speechon life experience of Jack Ma.
87You can follow the outline given below. Part I. Introductiona. Basic information to Jack Ma and AlibabaGroup.b. Thesis statement:Recognized as a Chinese business magnateand philanthropist, Jack Ma is the founder andexecutive chairman of Alibaba Group.To be continued
88You can follow the outline given below. Part II. Body (Detailed account of Jack Ma’s life)1. His college life and his interest in studying English;2. His early contact with the Internet and his business;3. Establishment of Alibaba and Taobao Marketplace.Part III. ConclusionDescription of Jack Ma’s personality and his great achievements.To be continued
89You may adopt the following expressions. an agreeable and winning personality;in the interim;be onto something;be underscored by extreme frugality and financial losses;take a stab at;along the way;boil down to;appealing product or service, a compelling strategy, anefficient management system;take sb./sth. for granted;…
90Translate a paragraph based on a summary of the text by using the expressions from the text.
91作为一名杰出企业家，史密斯受到对手和员工的敬重。年少时，他常遭坏孩子欺负。但他对飞行充满激情：大学期间，他参与耶鲁飞行俱乐部的重建。飞行曾使他的学业遭受影响。毕业后，他参加越南战争，融合军旅生涯和经营管理的经验，be held in high regardbe picked onreviveacademic performancefuse togetherTo be continued
92认识到优秀领导力具有相当重要的作用。回国后他尝试创业。最初的日子伴随着极度的拮据。尽管如此，他仍开辟先例，保证员工的医疗福利。他对员工的关心阐释了他的“P-S-P”理念，即：把员工放到与服务、利润同等重要的位置。have measurable effectsmake a stab atbe underscored byset the precedentshow concern forequally importantSamples
93As an outstanding entrepreneur, Smith is held in high regard by his competitors and his employees. Still a juvenile, he was often picked on by bullies. But his passion was flying. During his university life, he helped revive the Yale flying club. But flying made his academic performance suffer. After graduation, he joined the Vietnam War, where he learned that good leadership had measurable effectsTo be continued
94after fusing together his military and business experiences after fusing together his military and business experiences. Back from Vietnam, he made a stab at starting his own business. However, early days were underscored by extreme frugality. Despite this, he still set the precedent to ensure medical plan for his employees. His great concern for his employees illustrates his P-S-P philosophy (People, Service, Profit), with people put at an equally important place as service and profit.
95the Useful Expressions the Functional Patterns Fred Smith and FedEx:The vision that changed the worldSectionThematic studySummaryRevision ofthe Useful Expressionsthe Functional Patterns
96culmination of the dream 1. 终极梦想2. 隔夜送达服务3. 和蔼可亲、性格迷人4. 归因于5. 富裕家族6. 雷达导航7. 海军航空史8. 学业9. 设计一份草案10. 在此期间culmination of the dreamovernight delivery serviceagreeable and winning personalityattribute towealthy family clanradar navigationnaval aviation historyacademic performancedraft a prototypein the interim
97have measurable effects on 11.对…有重要作用12. 执着于/着迷于13. 中介枢纽14. 尝试某事15. 财务损失16. 开辟先例17. 为…着想18. 公众生活的荣耀19. 认为…是理所当然20. 称名道姓have measurable effects onbe/become fascinated byintermediary hubhave/take/make a stab at (doing) sth.financial lossesset the precedentshow concern fortrappings of public lifetake sb./sth. for grantedaddress sb. by name
98Functions & Usages Sentence Patterns 1. 用于说明“某人受尊 重的程度”。 2. 用于表达“同一时间 Recognized/Acknowledgedas …, sb. is held in highregard by…2. 用于表达“同一时间段内发生的事情”。In the interim, sb. does sth.,just as sth. is happening.3. 双重否定表示肯定，表达“某人经常做某事”。It is not uncommon for sb. todo sth.上面挤，下面空
99The end A Fred Smith and FedEx: The vision that changed the world SectionThe end