3 Causes for the emergence What led to the establishment of Vijayanagara Empire ?Continuous attacks by the Khilji dynasty of the North.Political Instablity in the South.Fear factor.Religious turmoil.Need to protect the interests of the Hindus & Indian Culture.
4 OriginHarihara I & Bukka I established the Vijayanagara empire on the banks of Tungabhadra in the year 1336.Hampi was the capital of the empire.Four dynasties of VijayanagarEstablishment of Vijayanagara empire is considered as ‘Landmark’ in Indian History.SangamaSaluvaTuluvaAraveedu
5 Harihara I (hakka)Founder of the Sangama dynasty, the first among the four dynasties that ruled Vijayanagara. Control over the valley of Tungabhadra RiverExpanded his control to certain regions of Konkan andMalabar Coast.Credited with establishing a centralized administrative setup. Orderly governance which afforded peace, prosperity, and security .
6 Bukkaraya (bukka i)Defeated the Shambuvaraya Kingdom of Arcot and the Reddis of Kondavidu by 1360 and the region around Penukonda was annexed. Bukka defeated the Sultanate of Madurai in 1371 and extended his territory into the south all the way to Rameswaram.By 1374 he had gained an upper hand over the Bahmanis for control of the Tungabhadra-Krishna doab.Restored religious harmony.Constructed forts, temples & promoted agriculture.Bukka Raya conquered most of the kingdoms of southern India
8 Prabhudevaraya (devaraya ii) Was popularly called ‘Hunter of the Elephants’ & ‘DakshinapathadaChakravarthi’.Extended and held territories up to the Krishna river.Conquered areas from Ceylon to Gulbarga, and Orissa to the Malabar.Received royalties from Kerala & Sri lanka.Religiously tolerant ruler.Constructed mosques & temples. Encouraged literature.
9 krishnadevarayaThe greatest emperor of theVijayanagara Empire who reigned from 1509–1530.Tackled numerous internal/external problems when he ascended throne.Was popularly called ‘Kannada Rajya Rama Ramana’, ‘Andhra Bhoja’& ‘Mooru Rayara Ganda’Was the most powerful of all the Hindu rulers of India at that time.Unparalleled warrior, shrewed commander & political expert.
11 Military achievements of Krishnadevaraya Defetaed Gangaraja of Ummatthur & took over Shivansamudra fort.Assisted the Portugese against Bijapur Sultans.Conquered Kalinga by defeating Gajapati Prataprudra.Captured Raichur fort by defeating Adil Shah. He also seized the forts of Bidar & Gulbarga.He freed the Prince of Bahamani Kingdom by defeating its Prime Minister Kasim Bareed.
12 Krishnadevaraya : other contributions Provided irrigation facilities for agriculture.Increased foreign trade.He was patron of art, literature & religions.He authored the play ‘Jambavati Kalyana’ in Sanskrit. There were ‘Ashtadiggajas’ in his court.Constructed Krishna temple, Virupaksha temple & Maharanga- mantapa at Hampi.
13 Fall of vIJAYANAGAR empire Causes for the decline of Vijayanagara Empire:A despotic government.Wars of succession.Weak successors of Krishna Deva Raya.Continuous wars with the neighbouring Bahamani Kingdom.Lack of control over the provincial governors.More attention towards the strengthening of army.
14 Deccan Sultanates Vijayanagara Empire Battle of talikota (1565)Deccan SultanatesAhmadnagar SultanateBijapur SultanateGolkonda SultanateBerar SultanateBidar SultanateVijayanagara EmpireAliya Rama Raya VenkatadriTirumala Deva RayaHampi was left in ruins.Araveedu dynasty ruled from Penukonda, Chandragiri & Vellore.Emegence of independent provinicial states.Domination by the Mughals and Maratahas.Aftermath of the war
15 Extent of Vijayanagar Empire VIJAYANAGAR Empire in IndiaExtent of Vijayanagar EmpireBattle of Talikot
16 vIJAYANAGAR empire : Administration Hereditary rule.Central administration.There were different bodies like State Council leader (Nayankar), cillage administrators. Different lvels like State, district, village.Provinicial officers used to dispense justice/punishments.The Gowdas, Karnam & Talwar used to assist in the village administration. Nadagowdas & Pattanswami also used to look after the administration.
17 vIJAYANAGAR empire : Society Four tiered caste system.Occupation based caste system.Practices of child-marriage, sati & devadasi were prevalent.Monogamy as well as Polugamy was in practise.Women enjoyed dignified status in the society.Holi, Dasara & Deepawali were some of the festivals.
18 vIJAYANAGAR empire : Economy Land tax, revenue tax, road tax, market tax, commercial tax, import/export tax were some of the sources of income.Agriculture – Jowar, Ragi, Paddy, Lentils, Cotton, Sugarcane etc.Five kinds of Land holdings – Geni, guttige, siddhaya, vara & gadi.Improved commerce & industry.Spices, diamonds, sandal etc were exported.Coins of different denominations were used.
19 vIJAYANAGAR empire : Art & architecture Architectural style of Chalukyas, Cholas & Hoyasalas.Rough granite stones were used for construction.Vidyashankar temple at Sringeri, Krishna, Virupaksha & Vijaya Vitthala temples at hampi.Kamal Mahal, Elephant stable, Queen’s bath are wonderful examples of Indo-Islamic style.Qualities of grandeur, awe & elegance were features of this architecture..Very strong Hampi fort with 7 circular walls around it.
20 Vijaya Vitthala Temple, Hampi Stone Chariot, HampiHampi FortElephant Stable
22 vIJAYANAGAR empire : Music & Dance Vijayanagara kings encouraged fine arts like music, dance, drama & yakshagana.Artists enjoyed great respect in palaces & temples.Puranadaradasa & Kanakadasa are greatest Kannada Saints who lived in this period.Carnataic music thriugh Bhajanas & Keertanas.Dancers performed in temples, palaces & during festivals.
25 originAla-ud-Din Hassan Gangu Bahman Shah established the Bahamani kingdom in 1347 A.D.Muhammad Shah I (1358–1377) was the second ruler who constucted famous Jamia Masjid in Gulbarga.Taj ud-Din Firuz Shah was one of the famous ruler who built the city of Ferozabad. He was a great scholar who also constructed a planetorium.Till 1426 A.D., Gulbarga served as the capital of the kingdom.
26 Mahmud Gawan He was a Prime minister of the Bahamani kingdom. He was reponsible for efficient administration of the state & military conquests.He captured Konkan, Goa & Belgaum.Invaded Kanchi & plundered its huge wealth.Was beheaded on false charges.He built the great university in Bidar which is known as Mahmud Gawan Madrasa.
27 Division of Bahamani Kingdom After the death of Gawan, the kingdom became weak & disintegrated into five parts:Bahamani KingdomAhamad NagarBijapurBerarBidarGolkondaNizam ShahiAdil ShahiEmad ShahiBarid ShahiKutub Shahi
28 bahamani Kingdom in India Extent of Bahamani KingdomDivision of Bahamani Kingdom
29 Bhaka nyari nyari bhava ek kaha turuk kaha barahaman Ibrahim Adil Shah IIAscended the throne at the age of 9. Ruled for 47 years.He tried to create cultural harmony between the Shias and the Sunnis and between Hindus and Muslims through music.Wrote the book Kitab-e-Navras (Book of Nine Rasas) in Dakhani.Bhaka nyari nyari bhava ek kaha turuk kaha barahamanNouras soor juga joti ani saroguni yusat sarasuti mata ibrahim parasada bhayi dooni
30 Bahamani Kingdom : Administration There were hierarchies in administration.Various departments in the administration.Cabinet was called ‘Majis-E-Ilwith’. Sultan was the chief of the central adminitration.Provinces were divided into Sarkars & Subedar was the head of the Sarkar.Kotwals, Deshmukh, Desai, Kulkarni & patel were some of the administrators in the kingdom.Village units were independent units.
31 Bahamani Kingdom : Administration Amir-E-Jumla was the head of the revenue department.Half or one third of agriculture was collected as Land tax. There were many other taxes collected.Four types of military troops – Permanent troops, troops recruited during war-time, troops for religious wars & units for protection of Royal family.Bijapur fort was the most formnidable fort.Sultan & Kazi were in charge of Judicial duties.
32 Bahamani Kingdom : Economy & Society Agriculture was the main occupation. There were many other minor industries like spinning, oil extractuion, pottery, sculpture etc.Dabhol, Rajapura & Goa were sojme of the ports. Export of Silk, wine, Gold, Silver, Copper, Tin etc. took place.Coins by the name Honnu, Lorry, Tanka were in use.Undivided Patriarchal families, rigid caste system, polygamy existed in the society..Haridasas & Muslim Sufi saints enriched the music & literature of this era.
33 Bahamani Kingdom : Education & Architecture Islam-centric education system.Maktabs & Madrasas were the centres of education.Mahmud Gawan established a huge 3-storied madrasa in Bidar.It was 242 ft long, 222 ft wide & 56 ft tall. It had a big library with manuscripts.Subjects like astronomy, grammar, maths, politics, religion, law, poetry were studied in colleges.Sultans developed Indo-Sarcenic architecture.Gol Gumbaz, Ibrahim Roza, Gagan Mahal were some of the greatest monuments bulit during this time.