Presentation on theme: "3 Unit 6 Section A Under the bombs: 1945"— Presentation transcript:
1 3 Unit 6 Section A Under the bombs: 1945 FOREIGH LANGUAGE TEACHING AND RESEARCH PRESSAIR FORCE ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY1
2 3 6 War and peace War is cruelty, and none can make it gentle. — Gilbert Parker(Canadian novelist and British politician)I am sure that if the mothers of various nations could meet, there would be no more wars.— E. M. Forster(British novelist)36UNITWar and peace2
3 Section A 3 6 War and peace Under the bombs: 1945 UNITWar and peaceUnder the bombs: 1945Section ATo talk about cruelty of war and its harmful impact on children’s growthObjectivesTo further understand the textTo apply the phrases and patternsTo master the essay writing skill3
4 Contents Under the bombs: 1945 Warming-up Activities Text Study Language ApplicationSummaryUnder the bombs: 1945Section A
5 Under the bombs: 1945 Warming-up Activities Lead-in Pre-reading ActivitiesCultural BackgroundUnder the bombs: 1945Section A
6 1. What information do the three pictures convey to us? Life in peace is happy.Children in war live in fear and horror.The war not only ruined their childhood but also cast their future under the cloud of the war.
7 2. What does war inevitably cause? Famine, hunger, disease, epidemic, deteriorated environment,unemployment, declining economy, homeless people …
8 adventure and excitement Many poor men thought that fighting in the army was an opportunity for_________________________. This seemed much better than the hard work of everyday life. But they soon found out that war was both ____________________.Listen to a talk about American people’s life in the 1800s and fill in the blanks with what you hear.adventure and excitementboring and terrifyinginstitute2. Both sides of the war eventually _______ a draft (强制征兵).This was when men were ________ chosen to enter the army whether they wanted to or not.randomlynurses in the army3. Some women served as________________ helping wounded soldiers________.Women had to work very hard to provide for their families.recover4. When General Sherman took the Union Army from Atlanta to Savannah he__________________ much of the land and farms along the way. It was a _____ time.burned and destroyedscary
9 Listen to a short passage about “Iraq war takes its toll on children” and fill in the missing information.The U.N. Children's Fund says children in Kurdistan in northern Iraq are___________ and the situation in southern Iraq has become more stable. It says security has improved in Baghdad and the surrounding areas since the so-called troop ________began in February.thrivingsurgeTo be continued
10 Listen to a short passage about “Iraq war takes its toll on children”and fill in the missing information.But, UNICEF spokeswoman, Claire Hajaj, tells VOA Iraq is still a __________and dangerous place. “Better ________does not mean secure. And, the second thing is as we see communities begin to open up because of greater_________, we can see the needs that may have been hidden for a long time.”volatilesecurityaccessTo be continued
11 Listen to a short passage about “Iraq war takes its toll on children”and fill in the missing information.UNICEF says Iraqi children frequently were caught in the ______________________in It reports hundreds of children lost their lives or were injured by ___________and many morehad their main family wage earner ___________or killed.More than one million people are _________in Iraq. About one half of them are children. Lisa Schlein for VOA news Geneva.crossfire of conflictviolencekidnappeddisplaced
12 Under the bombs: 1945Questions PreviewingWhy did American dropped an atomic bombof Hiroshima in 1945?2. What impact did the atomic attack have on Japanese civilians?Tips3. What does the history of the atomic bomb show to us?Tips
13 Under the bombs: 19451. What was the possible reason that American dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima in 1945?American administrations stated that it was military necessity to drop the bomb to end the war with Japan. The only alternative was an invasion in which many US troops would have been killed, and much more Japanese civilians would have lost their lives if the Japanese government hadn’t agreed to surrender even at the cost of so many lives.
14 Under the bombs: 1945 Humanities 2. What impact did the atomic attack have on Japanese civilians?The atomic bomb shattered the normal fabric of community life and disrupted the organizations for handling the disaster, with 30 percent of the population killed and the additional 30 percent seriously injured. The bulk of the population found refuge in the surrounding countryside. Within the city, the food supply was short and shelter was virtually nonexistent.
15 Under the bombs: 1945 Humanities 3. What does the history of the atomic bomb show to us?The idea of using nuclear weapons in an attempt to exercise global control is already bankrupt.It is morally bankrupt because it led to the sacrifice of the city – contrary to the international law despite the fact that there was military necessity—in pursuit of America’s quest to be the global leader.It is practically bankrupt because the actual result was an out-of-control nuclear arms race and secondly, a significant contribution to the Cold War and to the hot wars of Korea and Vietnam.
16 Under the bombs: 1945 Text Study Main Idea & Structure Language Focus Critical ThinkingText StudyUnder the bombs: 1945Section A
17 What is the beginning of the war look like in the author’s memory ? The war is clearly fixed in my mind :I notice______________________________________.I hear _____________________ in the clear brilliant sky.Tips12 distant silver points moving across the skyunfamiliar abnormal hum
18 What is the war like in the eyes of the 7-year-old child? (Para.2) TipsIt is an extraordinary spectacle.It terrorizes and fascinates me.I am not able to conceive of any danger of the war.18
19 Part I — (Paras. 1- __)2Part I presents us the beginning of the war. The author depicts how the bombs exploded____________________. As war was new to the author, he couldn’t ___________________ until he was stopped by his mother when he ran toward the forest.at the edge of the forestconceive of any danger
20 Part Ⅱ — (paras. 3- __)How they ran away and what they saw and what happened in their flight.5What do I see on the way to seeking refugee???Why does the author write in detail about his grandfather’s situation??How appalling the landscape is after the war ?20
21 ? What do I see on the way to seeking refugee? All highways, roads, country paths are a tangle of wagons,carts, and bicycles.People run in circles.bundles and suitcasesInnumerable terrified, helplessly wandering people21
22 Why does the author write in detail about his grandfather’s situation? TipsBecause the author wants to take his grandfather, a victim of war, as a typical example to reveal the helplessness and despair of individuals in the face of the brutal war.22
23 How appalling the landscape is after the war? ① The villages are deserted.What I see② The houses are burned out.③The battlefields are dense with the garbage of abandoned war equipment, bombed–out railway stations, overturned cars.23
24 How appalling the landscape after the war is ? It smells of gunpowder,and of burning, decomposingmeat after a massacre.What I smell24
25 Part II — Paras. 3 - __5Part II describes how people ________________and what happened on their way to flight. The author gave detailed description on how difficult and dangerous his grandfather’s situation is in one after another________to show how defenseless people are in the face of war, and then how the __________________ after a battle stroke their eyes and roused their mind.evacuated the cityair raidsappalling landscape
26 Why is winter a disaster, a pervasive and constant threat for the poor during the wartime?(Paras.6-8)TipsThe war has swallowed all our life necessities: nowhere to shelter, nothing to eat, nothing to get warm.The poor are exposed to more severe weather than in any other time in the year as they can’t afford to heat the furnace.26
27 Why does my mother stand brooding at the window for hours with fixed stare out into the street? (Paras. 6-8)TipsBecause she is worried and helpless. They have nothing to eat, and she doesn’t know whether they can survive the severe war.27
28 Why does the author regard the metal container as something valuable? (Para.8)TipsBecause they have nothing to eat and the sugar residue inside the container serves as their only nutrition for days.
29 Part III (Paras. 6-__)8Part III says that war is the source of other disasters for the civilians: severe shortage of food and other items they live by. Cold winter is another ______for the poor and their children. ______________,even some fruit drops is _______ for an entire family to live through for days.threatAnything ediblevaluable
30 Reflecting on all the suffering the war inflicts, who should be blamed for the loss of our naive childhood and beautiful life?(Para.9)TipsNo one can cure our inner heart trauma though the war is over. For whatever, civilians are always the seemingly inevitable victims of the war. Until now, I still cannot figure out the reasons why we should have undergone such suffering of war.
31 Part IV (Para. 9)Part IV describes the author’s feeling about the war: It destroyed my childhood, and I still can’t find out the reasons why we should endure such suffering as that which is inflicted by war.
32 Main Idea of the TextAs war was new to the author, he couldn’t conceive of the danger and he considered the explosion as a spectacle which fascinated him. Later, how they ran away and what they saw and what happened in their flight during the war became a nightmare for him. Besides, he suffered a lot in the winter after the battle, during which the family had nothing to eat and nothing to get warm. In sum, war destroyed his childhood and he still cannot figure out the reasons why they should have undergone such suffering of war.
33 IntroductionThe war started with sudden tremendous roar of bombs exploding. (Para.1)My mother saved me from the danger.(Para. 2)
34 Introduction Body How we ran away . (Para. 3) What happened in our flight. (Para. 4)What we saw after the end of war .(Para. 5)How we survived the winter.(Paras. 6-8)
35 Introduction Body Conclusion The war destroyed my childhood and I still can’t find out the reasons why we should endure such suffering as that which is inflicted by war. (Para. 9)
36 Until today, the beginning of the war was clearly ___________________with all its coloring and emotional intensity. For me, a seven-year-old child, I can’t ___________a single chain of causes and effects the roar of the bombs and my seemingly inevitable death. It’ s my mother’s trembling voice and urgent actions that awaken me to the danger. We’re forced to __________________for the sake of our lives.fixed in my mindrelate intoevacuate the cityTo be continued
37 Needless to say, everyone can sense the dangerous evil has__________________. As the blaze of battle__________, we’re faced with an increasingly__________________: deserted villages, solitary, burned-out houses and battle fields __________the garbage of abandoned war equipment, bombed-out railway stations and overturned cars.permeated the worldfades awayappalling landscapedense withTo be continued
38 The war left us homeless and overwhelmed us with hunger and severe cold weather.Human life is now ___________________.In our bitter memory , the war ruinedour ______________ and destroyed thepeaceful beauty of our world. I wonderwho can tell us the reason why thecivilians got involved in the war and_______________ so much sufferings.worth next to nothingnaive childhoodwere inflicted with
39 Practical Phrases Specific Meanings 1. radiate from自…发出2. line…with铺，垫（某物内部）3. next to nothing几乎没有；极少4. weave one’s way around / through / to sth.迂回穿行5. in the direction of朝…方向
40 radiate from 短语应用 意群提示 自…发出 短语逆译 尽管他感受到了被众多观众注目的压力，但他的内心仍散发出自信和活力。 (perceived / confidence and energy)Despite the pressure he perceived from the large audience looking only at him, from his inner heart was radiated confidence and energy.
41 line … with 短语应用 意群提示 铺，垫（某物内部） 短语逆译 快递员给箱子下面垫了很多纸，以防把里面的东西压坏。 (expressive delivery man / in case that)The expressive delivery man lined the box with lots of paper in case that the items inside were damaged.
42 next to nothing 短语应用 意群提示 几乎没有；极少 短语逆译 作为二战中的甲级战犯，他怎么敢说对这次战争一无所知! (class A war convict / how dare )As a class A war convict of World War II, how dare he said that he knew next to nothing about the war！
43 weave one’s way around / through sth. 迂回穿行短语逆译短语应用难民们在险象丛生的树林里穿行，只是为了活命。意群提示(refugee immigrant / danger has permeated ...)The refugee immigrants weaved their way through the forest where danger permeated every corner merely for the sake of their life.
44 短语应用 意群提示 in the direction of 短语逆译 朝…方向 朝着太阳升起的方向前进，天黑前我们就能到达目的地。 (the sun rising/ reach destination)Moving forward in the direction of the sun rising, we’ll reach our destination before it’s dark.
45 Functional Patterns Functions & Usages 1. When sb. look back, sb. is / are / feel adj. that …用于表达“回想往事时某人的感受”。2. Unable to do sth., sb. do sth. else.用于表达“由于不能做没事，某人开始做另一件事”。3. Sth. be but another sth. for sb., but for sb. else, sth. be …用于表达“同一实物在不同情境下对不同对象的不同意义”。45
46 原句译文 逆译练习 如今，当我回首往事，我很惊讶我居然能如此生动地回忆起轰炸开始的情况， 那天的色彩和紧张的情绪仍然清晰地印在我脑海里。 Today, when I look back, I’m surprised that I recall the beginning so vividly; it’s still clearly fixed in my mind with all its coloring and emotional intensity. (Line 1, Para.1)句型提炼46
47 句型提炼 应用提示 When sb. look back, sb. is / are / feel adj. that … 用于表达“某人在回想往事时的感受”。句型应用47
48 想起在去年严重的旱灾中，所有的湖泊和水井都干枯了，农民们依然心有余悸。 典型例句想起在去年严重的旱灾中，所有的湖泊和水井都干枯了，农民们依然心有余悸。意群提示(drought / dried up)When the farmers look back to the serious drought during which the lakes and wells all dried up last year, they are still haunted with fear.
49 原句译文 逆译练习 没考虑有危险，我开始朝着投下炸弹的森林方向跑。 Unable to conceive of the danger, I start running toward the forest, in the direction of the falling bombs. (Line 6, Para.2)句型提炼49
50 句型提炼 应用提示 Unable to do sth. , sb. do sth. else. 用于表达“由于不能做没事，某人开始做另一件事”。句型应用50
51 没有考虑到艾滋病的严重程度，该医院依然按照计划裁减了很多医护人员。 典型例句没有考虑到艾滋病的严重程度，该医院依然按照计划裁减了很多医护人员。意群提示(the severity of AIDS / original plan )Unable to conceive of the severity of AIDS, the hospital kept their original plan and dismissed a lot of medical workers.
52 原句译文 逆译练习 对正常情况下的人们来说，冬天只不过是另一个季节。但是对于战时的穷人来说，冬天是一个灾难，一个无处不在，持续不断的威胁。 Winter is but another season for those in normal condition, but for the poor during wartime, winter is a disaster, a pervasive and constant threat. (Line 2, Para.6)句型提炼52
53 句型提炼 应用提示 Sth. is but another sth. for sb., but for sb. else, it’s … 用于表达“同一实物在不同情境下对不同对象的不同意义”。句型应用53
54 典型例句战争对于那些政客来说只不过是一场输赢的角逐，但是对于无辜的老百姓来说，是一个巨大的灾难和永远的心理创伤。意群提示(a tremendous disaster / psychological trauma)War is but another competition for the political leaders, but for the innocent civilians, war is a tremendous disaster and permanent psychological trauma.
55 到哪，我不知道， 但是我知道逃跑突然变成了某种必须要做的事情，一种新的生存方式。 a. Where to, I don’t know; but I do understand that flight has suddenly become some kind of higher necessity, some new form of life.(Para.3, L2)
56 他不能动，已经瘫痪了，又一个地雷的受害者。 b. He can’t move; he is paralyzed, another casualty of a landmine. (Para.4, L2)
57 我的记忆总是被拉回到第一天在草地上的情形，那天，爆炸打破了花丛的宁静，也打破了我童年的纯真时光。 c. My mind is always drawn back to that first day in the meadow, the explosions destroying the peaceful flowers and the naïve days of my childhood.(Para.9, L1)
58 1. Does war solve problems, or create new ones in today’s world? 2. Can you name several factors contributing to a war?3. How do you think about the relationship between war and peace?Tips
59 1. Does war solve problems, or create new ones in today’s world? War sometimes does help some tough problems such as territory disputes, but it can never solve them once and for all. Losers may take revenge on winners several years later or even decades later, and then wars will continue on and on. Common people will live in constant chaos of war and suffer the most .National hatred between the countries involved in wars will be triggered and will remain in people’ hearts for many years.
60 2. Can you name several factors contributing to a war? • territory expansion or dispute• economic crisis• terrorism• religious conflict…
61 3. How do you think about the relationship between war and peace? ①It is war that inflicts devastation and destruction.②It is peace that facilitates long lasting prosperity and happiness.③Any peace brought by war is just temporary. Only the sincere desire for peace radiating from people’s hearts can bring about world peace.
62 Watch a video clip ：The Boy in The Striped Pajamas and discuss some questions. Childhood is measured out by sounds and smells and sights, before the dark hour of reason grows.— John Betjeman在黑暗的理性到来之前，用以丈量童年的是听觉嗅觉以及视觉。—约翰·贝哲曼
63 The Boy in The Striped Pajamas Brief introduction :The Boy in The Striped PajamasThe film explores the horror of a World War Ⅱextermination camp through the eyes of two eight-year-old boys, Bruno and Shmuel. Bruno is the son of the camp’s Nazi commandant, while Shmuel is a Jewish inmate. Following his father Ralf and his mother Elsa , Bruno moved from Berlin to the countryside after Ralf is promoted to commandant of a Nazi concentration camp. There he knows Shmuel, a boy with striped pajamas. He brings food and plays games with him through the barbed wire fence.To be continued
64 The Boy in The Striped Pajamas Brief introduction :The Boy in The Striped PajamasSoon they become friends. On the day before Bruno is due to leave, Shmuel reveals that his father has gone missing in the camp. Driven by the curiosity of adventure and sense of sympathy for Shamuel, Bruno promises to help Shmuel find his father in the camp, inside, Bruno is horrified by the dehumanization, starvation and sickness. To everyone’s shock, the Bruno and Shmuel become victims of the Nazi death camp run by his own father.
65 Questions for discussion Q.1 What does Bruno look like?Q.2 What does the boy Bruno hear and see in the video?Video Watching
67 1.What does Bruno look like? The young eight-year-old Bruno has the wide, blue-eyed innocence of the unprotected.
68 What does the boy Bruno hear and see in the video? Kotler, the lieutnant’s rude attitude towards Pavel, the old Jewish, makes a sharp contrast with his seemingly human nature in the simplicity world of Bruno.Bruno was attracted by the smoke of the sky in the distance which was actually from the chimney in the camp.Pavel’s tearful eyes aroused Bruno’s strong sense of sympathy and stirred his confusion.
69 Under the bombs: 1945 Language Application Writing Devices Essay WritingParagraph TranslationUnder the bombs: 1945Section A
70 How to write a descriptive essay, state an event or tell a story: When describing the process or some important scenes, chiefly we will use sight, but to some extent we may be able to use touch, hearing, smell, and perhaps even taste. Through the richness of our sense impressions, the readers will gain a picture of a scene vividly.to be continued
71 Example from the essay: (1) He sees the airplanes flying at him, sees them violently dip and aim, sees the fire of ammunitions, and hears the roar of the engines passing over his head.(2) It smells of gunpowder and of burning, decomposing meat after a massacre. Everywhere are the corpses of horses, too defenseless in this human war.(3) We have a dilute, sweet drink: our only nutrition for days.to be continued
72 How to write a descriptive essay, state an event or tell a story: First, we should have an introduction to put forward our thesis statement which states our dominant impression about a subject.Then, in the main body, we have all the supporting details stated in separate paragraphs.The last part is the conclusion, where we should draw together all the details to provide a final impression.
73 Now, appreciate how this method of writing is reflected in the paragragh 3 ,4 and 5.
74 The suffering and hardship the family endure Detail 1: highway, roads, country pathsDetail 2: wagons, carts, bicyclesDetail 3: fatigue of the peopleHow citizens run away( para.3)to be continued
75 The suffering and hardship the family endure How grandfather gets attacked( para.4)Detail 1: the location of my grandfatherDetail 2: the air raidsDetail 3: my grandfather’s reactionto be continued
76 The suffering and hardship the family endure The appalling landscape( para.5)Detail 1: the fading blaze of battleDetail 2: deserted villages, burned-out housesDetail 3: battlefields with garbage of abandoned war equipment, etc.
77 Read the sample essay and see how the description is developed.
78 Topic: Huntington Beach Introduction: Thesis statement: The place where I feel most comfortable is my hometown of Huntington Beach.Body:Detail 1: The sights of Huntington Beach make me relax and calm.Detail 2: The sounds of Huntington Beach are in perfect harmony.Detail 3: Everything on Huntington Beach has its own unique feel.Conclusion: I find Huntington Beach most comfortable because of its sights, sounds and its unique feel.to be continued
79 Essay Writing Practice Introduction The place where I feel most comfortable is my hometown of Huntington Beach. Huntington Beach is in California about 40 miles south of Los Angeles. It is known as the surfing capital of the world and the best beach in Orange County.to be continued
80 BodyI relax as I watch the surfers gently glide over the tumbling ocean waves. The swaying palm trees and the rolling sand dunes calm me down. The pier(码头）, as red as ruby, stands out to me among the deep blue ocean. As I lie on the sand, I see kites rise about the clouds and soar gracefully in the wind. The fishermen cast their lines off the pier hoping to feel a tug and reel in a big fish.to be continued
81 BodyThe sounds of Huntington Beach are in perfect harmony. Seagulls squawk as they soar overhead searching for food. The howling wind whistles through the beach like an arriving train. As the crash of the waves thunders through my ears, it brings me back to reality while I daydream . The sound of the oil rigs across Main Street is like a steady drum keeping the beat in an orchestra of sounds.to be continued
82 ConclusionI find Huntington Beach most comfortable because of its sight, sounds, and its unique feel mentioned in this essay. When I’m there, I feel totally relaxed as if I were in my own little world.
83 Writing practice Paragraph Writing Writing DevicesParagraph WritingWriting practiceDirections: Write an essay of no less than 150 words on one of the following topics. One topic has an outline you can follow.
84 Topic:My happy childhoodIntroduction:Thesis statement: my childhood was a happy time for me.Body:Detail 1: What I could do in spring.Detail 2: What I could do in summer.Detail 3: What I clould do in fall.Detail 4: What I could do in winter.Conclusion:I’ll never forget my childhood.
85 You may adopt the following expressions. Bring up meThe sound echo ...The sunlight shines with a pleasant promise of good cheer and comfort.It was succeeded by another ...rest on sth.appealing sceneryreach my ear(rain) patter down(cloud)roll inReflecting the pictures of the sky and land
86 More topics:• Our college campus• My favouite restaurant
87 Translate a paragraph based on a summary of the text by using the expressions from the text.
88 我们像囚犯一样连夜逃跑撤离这个城市，去哪，不知道，只知道只有逃跑才能活命。人们徒劳地 like convicts我们像囚犯一样连夜逃跑撤离这个城市，去哪，不知道，只知道只有逃跑才能活命。人们徒劳地四处逃窜，实在累了，就躺下来睡一会,然后重新开始他们漫无目的的旅程。run in circlesbegin anewTo be continued
89 遇到空袭时，所有人都躲到了壕沟里，只有我瘫痪的祖父留在 没人的马路上，看着飞机猛地俯冲瞄准，听着轰鸣的引擎从他的头上飞过。在人类的战争中，他是那样无助，孱弱无力。人的生命在此时一文不值。air raidon deserted roadroar of theenginesnext to nothingTo be continued
90 severe element随之而来的是，是恶劣天气对我们的生死考验。冬天，对穷人来说，是一个灾难，一个无处不在，持续不断的威胁。无论我如何努力，我还是不清楚当初到底我们做了什么，要让我们承受战争不可避免带来的所有伤害。pervasiveconstant threatall the sufferingTo be continued
91 We have to evacuate the city and run away in the night like convicts We have to evacuate the city and run away in the night like convicts. Where to, I don’t know. But I do understand that flight is the only way to save our lives. We run in circles, fall from fatigue, sleep for a moment, then begin anew our aimless journey. When an air raid begins, the entire group dives into ditches; only my grandfather remains on the deserted road. He sees the airplanes flying at him, sees them violently dip and aim, and hears the roar of theTo be continued
92 engines passing over his head engines passing over his head. In this human war, he is helpless and defenseless. Under such circumstances, human life is now worth next to nothing. Along with the war, came the cold weather — the severe element with which we must confront. For the poor, winter is a disaster, a pervasive and constant threat. Try as I might, I still can’t understand what we could have done to justify all the suffering war inevitably inflicts.
93 the Useful Expressions the Functional Patterns Thematic studySummaryRevision ofthe Useful Expressionsthe Functional PatternsUnder the bombs: 1945Section A
94 fall from profound fatigue recall the beginning1回忆开始的情况2在我的眼里3考虑到危险4撤离这个城市5累倒了6徒劳地跑着7又一个地雷的受害者8没人的马路9弥漫整个世界from my standpointconceive of the dangerevacuate the cityfall from profound fatiguerun in circlesanother casualty of a landminethe deserted roadpermeate the world
95 the useful expressions Revision ofthe useful expressionsLanguage points—useful patterns10到处都是…11丢弃的武器装备12翻倒的车13恶劣的天气14一个无处不在，持续不断的威胁15生火16一文不值17一群流浪的孩子18获得一丝暖意dense with …abandoned war equipmentoverturned carsevere elementsa pervasive and constant threatheat the furnaceworth next to nothinga gang of stray boyssummon a bit of warmth
96 the functional patterns Revision ofthe functional patternsLanguage points—functional patternsFunctions & UsagesSentence Patterns用于表达“回想往事时某人的感受”。用于表达“由于不能做没事，某人开始做另一件事”。用于表达“同一实物在不同情境下对不同对象的不同意义”。When sb. look back, sb. is/are/feel adj. that …Unable to do sth., sb. do sth. else.上面挤，下面空Sth. be but another sth. for sb., but for sb. else, sth. be …