Presentation on theme: "Characteristics and Components of an Ecosystem AICE EM: Biosphere Key Content 1 Or everything I should remember from Biology class!!! MORE."— Presentation transcript:
Characteristics and Components of an Ecosystem AICE EM: Biosphere Key Content 1 Or everything I should remember from Biology class!!! MORE
What are the major abiotic and biotic factors, which drive and influence the distribution of different ecosystems? The biotic and abiotic factors which control the distribution of the world’s major biomes as listed in the notes for guidance. – A survey of the global system followed by a study of the distribution of the following biomes: tropical rain forest, monsoon rain forest, tropical savannah, desert, temperate deciduous and high latitude tundra.
Fig. 3-3, p. 52 Stepped Art Smallest unit of a chemical element that exhibits its chemical properties Atom Molecule Chemical combination of two or more atoms of the same or different elements Cell The fundamental structural and functional unit of life Organism An individual living being Population A group of individuals of the same species living in a particular place Community Populations of different species living in a particular place, and potentially interacting with each other Ecosystem A community of different species interacting with one another and with their nonliving environment of matter and energy Parts of the earth's air, water, and soil where life is found Biosphere
Habitats Place where organism lives. – Small (termite intestine) – Large (ocean) Includes abiotic & biotic features “Natural address”
BIOMES Biomes are major areas where interactions between abiotic & biotic factors occur. They are groups of similar ecosystems characterized by precipitation, and temperature ranges, soil properties, plant communities, and animal communities.
Natural Capital: Generalized Map of the Earth’s Current Climate Zones
Fig. 7-6, p. 144 Moist air rises, cools, and releases moisture as rain Polar cap Arctic tundra Evergreen coniferous forest 60° Temperate deciduous forest and grassland 30° Desert Tropical deciduous forest Equator 0° Tropical rain forest 30° Desert 60° Temperate deciduous forest and grassland Tropical deciduous forest Polar cap
Your Responsibilities Research information pertaining to: – Temperature range: – Precipitation range: – Soil properties: – Plants: – Animals: – Other details about the biome: Refer to slide 2 for a list of required biomes.slide 2 Also look up the human impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystems (K 2) Next slides discuss Aquatic Systems – Research influence of human activity on marine ecosystems: including coastal waters, oceans, and coral reefs.
Fig. 8-5, p. 166 Low tide Coastal Zone Open Sea Depth in meters High tide Sun Sea level 50 Estuarine Zone Euphotic Zone 100 Photosynthesis Continental shelf 200 Bathyal Zone 500 1,000 Twilight 1,500 Water temperature drops rapidly between the euphotic zone and the abyssal zone in an area called the thermocline. Abyssal Zone 2,000 3,000 4,000 Darkness 5,000 10,000 051015202530 0 Water temperature (°C)
Fig. 8-15, p. 175 Sunlight Painted turtle Blue-winged teal Green frog Muskrat Pond snail Littoral zone Plankton Limnetic zone Profundal zone Diving beetle Benthic zone Northern pike Yellow perch Bloodworms
Fig. 8-17, p. 176 Lake Glacier Rain and snow Rapids Waterfall Tributary Flood plain Oxbow lake Salt marsh Delta Deposited sediment Source Zone Ocean Transition Zone Water Sediment Floodplain Zone
What are the main components and characteristics of ecosystems and how are they structured? The characteristics of ecosystems in terms of their biotic and abiotic components (soil, temperature, rainfall, photosynthesis, net primary productivity, succession, biomass, biodiversity, trophic levels, food chains and webs, habitats and niches). The interaction of these components to be illustrated through relative size of the flows and stores of nutrients between vegetation, litter and soil.
Range of Tolerance Fig. 3-10, p. 58 Few organisms Few organisms No organisms No organisms Lower limit of tolerance Higher limit of tolerance Abundance of organisms Zone of intolerance Zone of physiological stress Optimum range Temperature Zone of intolerance Zone of physiological stress LowHigh Population size
NICHES: the role you fill Trophic level – Producer / autotroph – Consumer / heterotroph Herbivore, carnivore/omnivore, 3° consumer, decomposer What do you provide/do for ecosystem/habitat – Pollinator – Provide shelter – Nutrient cycler – Trap soil – Absorb nutrients
Fig. 4-11, p. 91 Number of individuals Specialist species with a narrow niche Resource use Region of niche overlap Niche breadth Niche separation Generalist species with a broad niche
Fig. 4-13, p. 93 Black skimmer seizes small fish at water surface Black skimmer seizes small fish at water surface Brown pelican dives for fish, which it locates from the air Avocet sweeps bill through mud and surface water in search of small crustaceans, insects, and seeds Dowitcher probes deeply into mud in search of snails, marine worms, and small crustaceans Herring gull is a tireless scavenger Ruddy turnstone searches under shells and pebbles for small invertebrates Flamingo feeds on minute organisms in mud Scaup and other diving ducks feed on mollusks, crustaceans, and aquatic vegetation Louisiana heron wades into water to seize small fish Oystercatcher feeds on clams, mussels, and other shellfish into which it pries its narrow beak Knot (sandpiper) picks up worms and small crustaceans left by receding tide Piping plover feeds on insects and tiny crustaceans on sandy beaches
Energy Photosynthesis Net Primary Production Biomass Energy Diagrams – Food chain – Food Web – Energy Pyramid Energy Pyramid 10 % Rule 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O → C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Draw a picture representing the molecules. Use colored pencils for each element. Translate this chemical formula into a sentence using words. Primary productivity is the amount of photosynthesis / time. NPP: Amount of biomass produced minus amount of energy lost to cellular respiration
Photosynthesis 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 0 → C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 Is two separate reactions – 1 st Light reaction Chlorophyl is located in thylakoid membranes Light energy splits H 2 0 and enters a photosystem, located in thylakoid membranes Electrons move along photosystem Oxygen is byproduct 2 H 2 0 → 4 H + + 4e - + O 2
Photosynthesis – 2 nd reaction Calvin Cycle (or alternative pathways) Carbon fixation – CO 2 is “fixed” into an organic molecule like C 6 H 12 O 6 Uses the H + & energy from first reaction Occurs in stroma – Rate of photosynthesis is dependant on light intensity, level of CO 2, and temperature.
Fig. 7-16, p. 155 Blue and gold macaw Harpy eagle Ocelot Squirrel monkeys Climbing monstera palm Katydid Slaty-tailed trogon Green tree snake Tree frog Ants BacteriaBromeliad Fungi Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All producers and consumers to decomposers
Fig. 3-13, p. 62 Heat Solar energy Tertiary consumers (top carnivores) First Trophic Level Second Trophic Level Third Trophic Level Fourth Trophic Level Producers (plants) Primary consumers (herbivores) Secondary consumers (carnivores) Decomposers and detritus feeders Flow of energy is __________ system and can be represented by a ____________ Flow of matter is a __________ system and can be represented by a _____________? Word bank: closed, cyclical flowchart, open, straight line flow chart
Fig. 3-15, p. 63 10 Heat Decomposers Tertiary consumers (human) Secondary consumers (perch) Primary consumers (zooplankton) Producers (phytoplankton) Usable energy available at each trophic level (in kilocalories) 1,000 10,000 100
Nutrient Cycles Water Carbon Nitrogen Phosphorus Sulfur
Fig. 3-17, p. 66 Transpiration from plants Evaporation from land Precipitation to land Precipitation to ocean Evaporation from ocean Condensation Infiltration and percolation into aquifer Surface runoff Surface runoff Runoff Global warming Reduced recharge of aquifers and flooding from covering land with crops and buildings Aquifer depletion from overpumping Increased flooding from wetland destruction Point source pollution Groundwater movement (slow) Lakes and reservoirs Ice and snow Ocean Processes Processes affected by humans Reservoir Pathway affected by humans Natural pathway
Fig. 3-18, p. 68 Pathway affected by humans Diffusion Transportation Deforestation Respiration Decomposition Forest fires Compaction Burning fossil fuels Photosynthesis Animals (consumers) Plants (producers) Marine food webs Producers, consumers, decomposers Carbon in plants (producers) Carbon in fossil fuels Carbon dioxide dissolved in ocean Carbon in limestone or dolomite sediments Carbon in animals (consumers) Processes Reservoir Natural pathway Carbon dioxide in atmosphere
Fig. 3-19, p. 69 Decomposition Nitrogen loss to deep ocean sediments Processes Reservoir Pathway affected by humans Natural pathway Nitrogen in atmosphere Nitrogen in ocean sediments Ammonia in soil Nitrate in soil Nitrogen in plants (producers) Nitrogen in animals (consumers) Volcanic activity Electrical storms Nitrogen oxides from burning fuel and using inorganic fertilizers Nitrates from fertilizer runoff and decomposition Nitrification by bacteria Denitrification by bacteria Uptake by plants Bacteria
Fig. 3-21, p. 71 Processes Reservoir Pathway affected by humans Natural pathway Phosphates in mining waste Phosphates in sewage Animals (consumers) Bacteria Plants (producers) Phosphates in fertilizer Phosphate dissolved in water Phosphate in shallow ocean sediments Phosphate in deep ocean sediments Ocean food webs Phosphate in rock (fossil bones, guano) Sea birds Plate tectonics Erosion Runoff
Fig. 3-22, p. 72 Processes Reservoir Pathway affected by humans Natural pathway Dimethyl sulfide a bacteria byproduct Sulfur in ocean sediments Sulfur in soil, rock and fossil fuels Sulfur in plants (producers) Sulfur in animals (consumers) Sulfur dioxide in atmosphere Decay Uptake by plants Mining and extraction Sulfuric acid and Sulfate deposited as acid rain Smelting Burning coal Refining fossil fuels
Natural Capital: Major Components of the Earth’s Biodiversity
Species Diversity: Variety, Abundance of Species in a Particular Place Species diversity Species richness Species evenness Diversity varies with geographical location Most species-rich communities Tropical rain forests Coral reefs Ocean bottom zone Large tropical lakes
Variations in Species Richness and Species Evenness
Relationships Predator/prey – Can cause coevolution Symbiosis – Commensalism – Mutualism – Parasitism Competition – Drives evolution
Fig. 5-11, p. 111 Biotic potential Population size Time (t) Carrying capacity (K) Environmental resistance Population stabilizes Exponential growth
Fig. 5-12, p. 111 1925 Number of sheep (millions).5 1.0 1.5 2.0 Population overshoots carrying capacity Carrying capacity Population recovers and stabilizes Exponential growth Population runs out of resources and crashes 18251800185018751900 Year
Population Cycles for the Snowshoe Hare and Canada Lynx
Fig. 5-16, p. 116 Time Exposed rocks Lichens and mosses Small herbs and shrubs Heath mat Jack pine, black spruce, and aspen Balsam fir, paper birch, and white spruce forest community
Fig. 5-17, p. 117 Time Annual weeds Perennial weeds and grasses Shrubs and small pine seedlings Young pine forest with developing understory of oak and hickory trees Mature oak and hickory forest