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Unit 2: Ecosystems & Biospheres Energy & Matter, Biogeochemical Cycles, Human Impact.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 2: Ecosystems & Biospheres Energy & Matter, Biogeochemical Cycles, Human Impact."— Presentation transcript:


2 Unit 2: Ecosystems & Biospheres Energy & Matter, Biogeochemical Cycles, Human Impact

3 Organisms to Biosphere  Organism: one individual life form  Population: group of the same species  Community: collection of populations  Ecosystem: community and the environment  Biosphere: global ecosystem (Earth)


5 Ecology Study of living things, their relationship with each other and their relationship with the environment

6 Energy abbreviated E Ability to do work 1 st law of thermodynamics: Energy can not be created or destroyed. Energy changes form (it is transformed)

7 Energy transformations are inefficient Energy is constantly lost- mainly as heat!

8 Energy  Energy is found in food, this type of energy is known as Chemical Energy Chemical Energy in Sugar bonds!

9 Energy  Chemical Energy is converted by the body into Free Energy Chemical Energy in Sugar Free Energy to use

10 Energy  Free Energy in the body is known as ATP!

11 E 2 nd law of thermodynamics: matter tends towards disorder and must have an energy input to maintain order

12 Energy It takes energy to maintain order and decrease disorder!

13 Ecosystem  Biotic Factors Anything living or comes from a living thing Anything living or comes from a living thing  Abiotic Factors Anything nonliving Anything nonliving

14 Different organisms in an ecosystem get energy in different ways: known as Trophic Levels (troph means “to feed”) (troph means “to feed”)

15 AUTOTROPH Auto- self Troph- feed Self feeders

16 1. Producers  Plants are called producers, because they can “produce” their own food using energy from sun light.

17 Photosynthesis converts solar energy to chemical energy CO 2 + H 2 0 C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 sun

18 Energy enters the ecosystem as sunlight  Only 1-2% of the light energy is captured and turned into chemical energy by plants (PHOTOSYNTHESIS)  98-99% rest is reflected, or just warms up the tree as it is absorbed  Very inefficient

19 Heterotrophs Includes: Primary Consumers, Secondary Consumers, Tertiary Consumers, Quartenary Consumers and Decomposers Must obtain energy from outside sources v=0NcJ_63z-mA v=U5YCNBKg98I&feature=rela ted&safety_mode=true&persist_ safety_mode=1

20 Cellular Respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 0 + ATP

21 Producers  Determine the size of the community  More producers = more consumers  The most mass in an ecosystem  The most energy in an ecosystem

22 Biomass: total amount of organic matter in an area. Usually measured as a weight Usually shown as a biomass pyramid

23 Represents the amount of living organic matter at each trophic level and therefore potential food available Vegetation Deer wolves Biomass

24 Food Chains A food chain shows energy passed from one organism to another in an ecosystem. What does the arrow show?

25 Trophic Interactions Food chains Eagle WolfRobin DeerCaterpillar GrassLeaves Name the trophic levels

26 Trophic Interactions Food chains show the recycling of matter Eagle WolfRobin DeerCaterpillar Grass Decomposers Leaves

27 Food Webs  Animals may eat more than one thing, so they belong to more than one food chain.  Food chains are connected together to form food webs.

28 Food Webs More than one organism is at each trophic level. Name them. owl fox rabbits grass mice berriesseeds

29 Energy Only about 10% of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to organisms at the next trophic level Eagle Robin Caterpillar Leaves.1% 1% 100% 10%

30 an organism on one trophic level needs to eat 10x more than an organism one trophic level below Energy Pyramid: Shows the amount of energy available at each trophic level

31 Food chains recycle matter Wolf Deer Grass Decomposers Example: Carbon Matter is Conserved within the system

32 Energy flows through Not recycled, but transformed Wolf Deer Grass Decomposers = loss: heat or kinetic Energy is Conserved within the system

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