Unit 2: Ecosystems & Biospheres Energy & Matter, Biogeochemical Cycles, Human Impact
Organisms to Biosphere Organism: one individual life form Population: group of the same species Community: collection of populations Ecosystem: community and the environment Biosphere: global ecosystem (Earth)
1. Producers Plants are called producers, because they can “produce” their own food using energy from sun light.
Photosynthesis converts solar energy to chemical energy CO 2 + H 2 0 C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 sun
Energy enters the ecosystem as sunlight Only 1-2% of the light energy is captured and turned into chemical energy by plants (PHOTOSYNTHESIS) 98-99% rest is reflected, or just warms up the tree as it is absorbed Very inefficient
Heterotrophs Includes: Primary Consumers, Secondary Consumers, Tertiary Consumers, Quartenary Consumers and Decomposers Must obtain energy from outside sources http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=0NcJ_63z-mA http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=U5YCNBKg98I&feature=rela ted&safety_mode=true&persist_ safety_mode=1
Cellular Respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 0 + ATP
Producers Determine the size of the community More producers = more consumers The most mass in an ecosystem The most energy in an ecosystem
Biomass: total amount of organic matter in an area. Usually measured as a weight Usually shown as a biomass pyramid
Represents the amount of living organic matter at each trophic level and therefore potential food available Vegetation Deer wolves Biomass
Food Chains A food chain shows energy passed from one organism to another in an ecosystem. What does the arrow show?
Trophic Interactions Food chains Eagle WolfRobin DeerCaterpillar GrassLeaves Name the trophic levels
Trophic Interactions Food chains show the recycling of matter Eagle WolfRobin DeerCaterpillar Grass Decomposers Leaves
Food Webs Animals may eat more than one thing, so they belong to more than one food chain. Food chains are connected together to form food webs.
Food Webs More than one organism is at each trophic level. Name them. owl fox rabbits grass mice berriesseeds
Energy Only about 10% of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to organisms at the next trophic level Eagle Robin Caterpillar Leaves.1% 1% 100% 10%
an organism on one trophic level needs to eat 10x more than an organism one trophic level below Energy Pyramid: Shows the amount of energy available at each trophic level
Food chains recycle matter Wolf Deer Grass Decomposers Example: Carbon Matter is Conserved within the system
Energy flows through Not recycled, but transformed Wolf Deer Grass Decomposers = loss: heat or kinetic Energy is Conserved within the system