Presentation on theme: "Principles of Education and Training"— Presentation transcript:
1 Principles of Education and Training Chapter 1: Teaching as a Profession
2 Teaching as a Profession Objectives:Give examples of how the qualities of effective teachers apply in actual classroom situationsAnalyze challenges related to teaching and how teachers meet themIdentify the educational requirements for teachers at various levelsSummarize career opportunities for teachers outside schoolsDescribe employment opportunities and trends in teachingIdentify the factors that impact school employment opportunitiesAnalyze teacher salary and benefits
3 Teaching as a Profession What Are the Qualities of an Effective Teacher?Effective teachers come in many forms (outgoing and dramatic, demanding and firm, soft-spoken and reflective, or introverted and quiet)However, all effective teachers are able to:Motivate, inspire, and influence their studentsCommunicate well with students and adultsConvey their enthusiasm for learningBe well organized
4 Teaching as a Profession What Are the Qualities of an Effective Teacher?Effective teachers share these personal qualities:CaringCommittedCourteousHonestRespectfulHigh expectationsKindPatientResponsibleTolerantLove learningAdaptableCan you think of other qualities to add to the list?
5 Teaching as a Profession What Happens in a Teacher’s Typical Day?Most of the day is spent designing and presenting classroom learning experiencesCreativity and knowledge of students’ learning styles and abilities is necessaryIf classes are small or time permits—they may work with students individuallyAssess students learningGrade assignments and evaluate student participation in class activitiesCoordinate with other specialistsEX: counselors, reading specialists, speech therapistsMay supervise extracurricular activities
6 Teaching as a Profession Determining What to TeachTeachers don’t just teach whatever they want!They must follow the curriculum—courses taught, what is taught in each course, and the course sequence.Influences on curriculum include:National Curriculum StandardsUse of these is voluntary, but have significant influenceState Curriculum StandardsMakes sure students are ready to advance to the next level of courses, even if they move to another schoolSchool-based CurriculumAlternative where teachers are involved in choosing what is taught based on their students needs
7 Teaching as a Profession The Rewards of TeachingTeaching is inspiring, challenging, and as unique as each studentTeaching makes a difference in the world!Teachers see their students change—grow physically, emotionally, and socially.They see their students learn day by day.They see students develop new knowledge, skills, and confidence and this can be the most rewarding part of teaching.They play a significant role in their students learning and growth.
8 Teaching as a Profession The Challenges of TeachingTeachers work hard!They spend long hours outside of school preparing lessons and grading student work.They are often spend vacations thinking ahead and planning.This can also include: attending conferences or workshops and taking classes toward an advanced degree.Conditions aren’t always idealClasses can be largeOld school buildingsHeavy workloadsMay not have up-to-date textbooks,educational technology, andother learning aids
9 Teaching as a Profession The Challenges of Teaching—ContinuedSchools reflect the problems of societyPoverty, alcohol and other drug abuse, etc. affect students and can thus make teaching emotionally drainingTeachers may face disrespect, unruly behavior, and even violence in schoolsEffective teachers must find strategies to help them deal with problems they encounter.
10 Teaching as a Profession Where Do Teachers Work?You may be surprised to know it’s not just schools!However, most teachers do teach in schools.Teaching in SchoolsSchools vary:Preschools to colleges and universitiesSize: small to very largeLocation: rural, suburbs, or major urban areasPublic vs. PrivatePublic schools are funded by tax dollars while private schools are notSome private schools are sponsored by religious organizations (Ex: private Catholic schools) while others are nonsectarianThe purpose of all schools is to promote learning
11 Teaching as a Profession Common School DesignationsHowever, variations are fairly common.LevelGradesTypical Student AgePreschool2-4Prekindergarten4-5ElementaryKindergarten-grades 4, 5, or 65-11Middle schoolGrades 5 or 6-810-13Junior highGrades 7-8 or 912-14High schoolGrades 9 or 10-1214-18
12 Teaching as a Profession Preschool and Prekindergarten ProgramsOn the riseStronger education focus than child care programs which focus primarily on providing a safe, caring environmentPlay is the main occupation of young children and it is how they learnThey also listen and tell stories, pretend (to be shoppers, pilots, and even dogs), build (sandcastles, block towers, etc), and express themselves in paintings and songsSo how should we teach Preschool and Pre-K students?
13 Teaching as a Profession Preschool and Prekindergarten ProgramsTeachers should plan activities that build on children’s curiosity and interest in playThey need to have knowledge and understanding of child development and experience with childrenChildren should also spend time in unstructured play where they choose their own play activitiesRequirements for teaching Preschool and Pre-K varyMany require at least an A.S. in Early Childhood Development and Education (2 yrs of study)CDA—Child Development Associate—designation from the National Association for the Education of Young ChildrenParaprofessional—for those with less education or experience and work under the supervision of a more highly educated professionalSee Chart 1-5 for help in understanding academic degrees (Page 24 of student text)Some, especially those linked to elementary schools, require a B.S. degree (4 yrs of study)Some states require certification (such as CDA)Paraprofessional positions are usually also available
14 Teaching as a Profession Elementary SchoolsFor students it is a time of great exploration, language development, social development, and the introduction of scientific and mathematical concepts.Small children grow into pre-teens.Students:Learn to read, compute, and tackle more complex informationMake friends and figure out how to handle disagreementsDeal with feelingsDevelop a sense of who they areThe classroom experiences they have during these early years impact success or failure in school, work, and even their personal lives.
15 Teaching as a Profession Elementary SchoolsMost elementary school teachers teach in self-contained classrooms.Classrooms are typically active and visually stimulatingTeachers use a variety of teaching methodsLessons may incorporate: games, music, art activities, computer programs, visuals, textbooks, and teacher presentationsWhat is a self-contained classroom?When the same teacher and group of students remain in one classroom for most of the day, with one teacher teaching most or all of the subjects.Elementary teachers are usually hired to teach one grade level.However, at some schools they instruct across several grades.
16 Teaching as a Profession Middle Schools and Junior HighsBrain development at this stage encourages thinking at a higher level.Students:Think faster and more creativelyCan identify multiple solutions to problemsThink abstractlyAbstract thinking is about ideas and concepts, such as justice or love, rather than only what is actually experienced—the concrete thinking of younger students.Abstract thinkers are interested in why things are the way they areThey also connect how they feel to what they’re thinkingTeachers usually specialize in one or two areas (ex: science or math) since the students study the topics more in depth at this age level.
17 Teaching as a Profession Middle Schools and Junior HighsStudents:Have multiple teachers—moving them toward the system they’ll experience in high schoolLearning is less structured (more projects and activities)Can be lively and creativeOften participate in collaborative learning because learning social skills is so important in this stage of lifeAre expected to become more responsible for their own learning and conductWhat is collaborative learning?Learning that takes place when students work in groups to discuss and solve problems together.Are encouraged to structure their time and make plans then organize and carry out these plans.Teachers need to help them build these and other skills and habits to prepare them for high school.
18 Teaching as a Profession High SchoolsStudents are studying subjects even more in depth, have new subject areas, and 5-7 different classes and teachers.Students:Are expected to take primary responsibility for their learningAre expected to ask for help if they don’t understandUsually have a lot of homework and long-term projectsRoutinely practice solving problems by gathering and evaluating informationAssignments require complex thinking skills
19 Teaching as a Profession High SchoolsTeachers:Typically specialize in one subject or a group of related subjectsNeed more content depthMust have at least a bachelor’s degree from a 4-year college or universityMust be certified to teach in their stateAdditional responsibilities (study hall monitor, school organization advisor, tutor, coach, chaperone at events, etc.)Some are part of their regular duty others are additional with extra payHave some flexibility in what and how they teachThey determine how much to emphasize various topics and how best to present them (teacher presentation, group discussion, lab, or combination of these and other techniques)
20 Teaching as a Profession Teaching SpecialistsInclude:Elementary—music or physical educationMiddle school—foreign languages (ex: Spanish and Chinese)Reading specialistsSpecial education teachersWork with students with special learning needsUse various techniques to help students learnWork with a team of specialists (often a therapist and psychologist) and the child’s parents or guardians to develop a plan of actionSome work with students with specific impairments in speech, hearing, sight, or languageWork with regular education teachers to help them adapt their teaching for these studentsOthers help with children with emotional problems that impact their learning
21 Teaching as a Profession Teaching SpecialistsSpecial education teachers—ContinuedSome work with students with more severe developmental or learning disabilitiesWork with these students on: basic literacy skills and life skills (social skills, self-care skills, and job-related skills)Career and technical education teachers (CTE)Instruct and train students to work in a variety of careersAssist students in exploring these careers and connecting classroom learning with the real worldInclude: trade and industrial fields (ex: automotive), family and consumer sciences (ex: food production), health occupations field, public safety and security, and other technical areas.CTE teachers teach in middle schools, high schools, and two-year colleges.
22 Teaching as a Profession Postsecondary Education ProgramsWhat is postsecondary education?Education that takes place after high school.Technical SchoolsDesigned to teach specific skills needed to work in a tradeAlso called: trade schools, vocational colleges, business schools, technical institutes, or fashion institutesCourses of study are focused and generally shorter than college programsTeaching at Technical SchoolsCollege degrees are preferred but having related skills and experience is most importantEx: to teach Culinary Arts at a technical school,a teacher might have experience as a head chef.
23 Teaching as a Profession Postsecondary Education ProgramsCommunity CollegesFocus on meeting the educational and training needs of the communities they serveMost offer two-year associate’s degreesMay offer programs that lead to certifications (ex: respiratory therapy, welding)Some students attend for two years then transfer to a four-year degree programThis requires close coordination between the two schools to make sure the classes will transferStudents usually save on educational costs by doing thisEntrance generally open to anyone with a high school diplomaDiverse types of studentsOver 1000 community colleges in the US and serve almost half of high school graduates each year
24 Teaching as a Profession Postsecondary Education ProgramsTeaching at Community CollegesMany positions existMost require a minimum of a master’s degree (a two-year degree beyond the traditional four-year college degree)Must be prepared for working with students at various skill levels because of the diversity of types of studentsFull and part time studentsRecent high school graduatesAdultsHigh school students taking classes for college creditAdults trying to complete a degree they started but didn’t finishEmployees trying to improve current job skills or studying for a new occupation
25 Teaching as a Profession Postsecondary Education ProgramsFour-year colleges and universitiesTraditional places for higher educationColleges vs. UniversitiesWhile the two are often used interchangeably they are different—universities offer graduate degree programsColleges often offer degrees in one area, while universities offer degrees in a variety of areas because they’re actually composed of a collection of collegesStudents complete general education classes (sometimes called core courses) plus classes specific to their area of specialization
26 Teaching as a Profession Postsecondary Education ProgramsTeaching at Colleges & UniversitiesSpecialize in one particular area and teach a limited number of different coursesMost require a doctorate degree (usually called a PhD or EdD)However, most schools also have professors with master’s degreesProfessors are often expected to conduct research in their field and do scholarly writing in addition to their teaching duties
27 Teaching as a Profession Teaching in Other SettingsBusiness and IndustryCorporate trainers—provide education to a businesses employeesFull-time, part-time, or self-employedTypes of Education depend on company’s needsTechnical work skillsMotivationEffective CommunicationLeadershipTeam buildingForeign languageOther Examples: history of destination (travel agency), classes or one-on-one instruction for children undergoing long-term treatment in hospitalsTeachers must adapt their basic skills to fit the situation.
28 Teaching as a Profession Teaching in Other SettingsAdult EducationLiteracy programs—improving reading skills or learning EnglishGeneral Equivalency Diploma (GED) programsGeneral or specific job skillsTechnical skills (ex: computer skills)Personal enrichmentContinuing education (some professional degrees require this to maintain or renew licenses)
29 Teaching as a Profession Teaching in Other SettingsAdult EducationOngoing needOften government funded but can be supported through private funds or by for-profit companiesCan be offered at community colleges and universities (but the classes do not normally lead to a degree)Also offered at job training centersTeachers perform the same roles as they would in schools but their audience is differentCareer opportunities range from teaching one course to a full-time positionTeachers perform the same roles as they would in schools, but their audience is different.Career opportunities range from teaching one course to a full-time position.
30 Teaching as a Profession Teaching in Other SettingsCooperative Extension ServiceCooperative Extension educators, or agents, are community leadersTeach individuals and communitiesProvide technical assistance to agricultural producers and small business ownersOften coordinate with 4-H (youth leadership)Professional employees of state universities and are supported by the federal governmentJob duties vary (formal to informal educational outreach)In TX, it’s known as Texas AgriLife Extension Service and is associated with Texas A & M.
31 Teaching as a Profession Teaching in Other SettingsSports and Fitness ProgramsCoaches, athletic trainers, athletic directors, aerobics instructors, camp directors, and recreation specialistsKnowledge and experience needed but a degree isn’t always requiredNeed to be able to motivate others to learn and accomplish their goalsCould be hired by private gyms or be self-employedClubs, Community Organizations, and Religious GroupsBoys and Girls Clubs of America, summer camps, or park districtsOrganizations and communities sponsor educational opportunities such as gardening, cooking, defensive driving, and religious studiesMusic teachers might be hired to provide music and lead choirs for religious groups
32 Teaching as a Profession Employment Opportunities and TrendsThere will always be a need for teachers!Education is the key to a successful societyOver the next ten years, it is predicted there will be need for over two million new teachers in schools alone!Why such a big need?Teachers retiringEducational reformPopulation growthMath and science teachers are in greater demandBilingual teachers is growing in demand in certain parts of the countrySpecial education teachers also in demandTeachers willing to relocate are at an advantageTeachers are always in demand!
33 Teaching as a Profession Teacher Salaries and BenefitsThey vary considerably depending upon:LocationAmount of EducationAdditional pay for coaching and advising clubs/organizationsPublic schools usually pay more than private schoolsSome teachers take on part-time jobs during their summer break to boost incomePay increase with more education (ex: earning a master’s)Benefits vary by district but most include:Health insuranceRetirement Savings PlanExperienceAdditional responsibilitiesLeave of absence (paid or unpaid)Various other benefits (travel expenses or education repayment)Some districts offer signing bonuses in an effort to gain top teaching candidatesA few districts offer home loan assistance or tax breaks for living within the district
34 End of Chapter One Review Date: _____________ TEST Date: ______________