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Principles of Education and Training

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Presentation on theme: "Principles of Education and Training"— Presentation transcript:

1 Principles of Education and Training
Chapter 1: Teaching as a Profession

2 Teaching as a Profession
Objectives: Give examples of how the qualities of effective teachers apply in actual classroom situations Analyze challenges related to teaching and how teachers meet them Identify the educational requirements for teachers at various levels Summarize career opportunities for teachers outside schools Describe employment opportunities and trends in teaching Identify the factors that impact school employment opportunities Analyze teacher salary and benefits

3 Teaching as a Profession
What Are the Qualities of an Effective Teacher? Effective teachers come in many forms (outgoing and dramatic, demanding and firm, soft-spoken and reflective, or introverted and quiet) However, all effective teachers are able to: Motivate, inspire, and influence their students Communicate well with students and adults Convey their enthusiasm for learning Be well organized

4 Teaching as a Profession
What Are the Qualities of an Effective Teacher? Effective teachers share these personal qualities: Caring Committed Courteous Honest Respectful High expectations Kind Patient Responsible Tolerant Love learning Adaptable Can you think of other qualities to add to the list?

5 Teaching as a Profession
What Happens in a Teacher’s Typical Day? Most of the day is spent designing and presenting classroom learning experiences Creativity and knowledge of students’ learning styles and abilities is necessary If classes are small or time permits—they may work with students individually Assess students learning Grade assignments and evaluate student participation in class activities Coordinate with other specialists EX: counselors, reading specialists, speech therapists May supervise extracurricular activities

6 Teaching as a Profession
Determining What to Teach Teachers don’t just teach whatever they want! They must follow the curriculum—courses taught, what is taught in each course, and the course sequence. Influences on curriculum include: National Curriculum Standards Use of these is voluntary, but have significant influence State Curriculum Standards Makes sure students are ready to advance to the next level of courses, even if they move to another school School-based Curriculum Alternative where teachers are involved in choosing what is taught based on their students needs

7 Teaching as a Profession
The Rewards of Teaching Teaching is inspiring, challenging, and as unique as each student Teaching makes a difference in the world! Teachers see their students change—grow physically, emotionally, and socially. They see their students learn day by day. They see students develop new knowledge, skills, and confidence and this can be the most rewarding part of teaching. They play a significant role in their students learning and growth.

8 Teaching as a Profession
The Challenges of Teaching Teachers work hard! They spend long hours outside of school preparing lessons and grading student work. They are often spend vacations thinking ahead and planning. This can also include: attending conferences or workshops and taking classes toward an advanced degree. Conditions aren’t always ideal Classes can be large Old school buildings Heavy workloads May not have up-to-date textbooks, educational technology, and other learning aids

9 Teaching as a Profession
The Challenges of Teaching—Continued Schools reflect the problems of society Poverty, alcohol and other drug abuse, etc. affect students and can thus make teaching emotionally draining Teachers may face disrespect, unruly behavior, and even violence in schools Effective teachers must find strategies to help them deal with problems they encounter.

10 Teaching as a Profession
Where Do Teachers Work? You may be surprised to know it’s not just schools! However, most teachers do teach in schools. Teaching in Schools Schools vary: Preschools to colleges and universities Size: small to very large Location: rural, suburbs, or major urban areas Public vs. Private Public schools are funded by tax dollars while private schools are not Some private schools are sponsored by religious organizations (Ex: private Catholic schools) while others are nonsectarian The purpose of all schools is to promote learning

11 Teaching as a Profession
Common School Designations However, variations are fairly common. Level Grades Typical Student Age Preschool 2-4 Prekindergarten 4-5 Elementary Kindergarten-grades 4, 5, or 6 5-11 Middle school Grades 5 or 6-8 10-13 Junior high Grades 7-8 or 9 12-14 High school Grades 9 or 10-12 14-18

12 Teaching as a Profession
Preschool and Prekindergarten Programs On the rise Stronger education focus than child care programs which focus primarily on providing a safe, caring environment Play is the main occupation of young children and it is how they learn They also listen and tell stories, pretend (to be shoppers, pilots, and even dogs), build (sandcastles, block towers, etc), and express themselves in paintings and songs So how should we teach Preschool and Pre-K students?

13 Teaching as a Profession
Preschool and Prekindergarten Programs Teachers should plan activities that build on children’s curiosity and interest in play They need to have knowledge and understanding of child development and experience with children Children should also spend time in unstructured play where they choose their own play activities Requirements for teaching Preschool and Pre-K vary Many require at least an A.S. in Early Childhood Development and Education (2 yrs of study) CDA—Child Development Associate—designation from the National Association for the Education of Young Children Paraprofessional—for those with less education or experience and work under the supervision of a more highly educated professional See Chart 1-5 for help in understanding academic degrees (Page 24 of student text) Some, especially those linked to elementary schools, require a B.S. degree (4 yrs of study) Some states require certification (such as CDA) Paraprofessional positions are usually also available

14 Teaching as a Profession
Elementary Schools For students it is a time of great exploration, language development, social development, and the introduction of scientific and mathematical concepts. Small children grow into pre-teens. Students: Learn to read, compute, and tackle more complex information Make friends and figure out how to handle disagreements Deal with feelings Develop a sense of who they are The classroom experiences they have during these early years impact success or failure in school, work, and even their personal lives.

15 Teaching as a Profession
Elementary Schools Most elementary school teachers teach in self-contained classrooms. Classrooms are typically active and visually stimulating Teachers use a variety of teaching methods Lessons may incorporate: games, music, art activities, computer programs, visuals, textbooks, and teacher presentations What is a self-contained classroom? When the same teacher and group of students remain in one classroom for most of the day, with one teacher teaching most or all of the subjects. Elementary teachers are usually hired to teach one grade level. However, at some schools they instruct across several grades.

16 Teaching as a Profession
Middle Schools and Junior Highs Brain development at this stage encourages thinking at a higher level. Students: Think faster and more creatively Can identify multiple solutions to problems Think abstractly Abstract thinking is about ideas and concepts, such as justice or love, rather than only what is actually experienced—the concrete thinking of younger students. Abstract thinkers are interested in why things are the way they are They also connect how they feel to what they’re thinking Teachers usually specialize in one or two areas (ex: science or math) since the students study the topics more in depth at this age level.

17 Teaching as a Profession
Middle Schools and Junior Highs Students: Have multiple teachers—moving them toward the system they’ll experience in high school Learning is less structured (more projects and activities) Can be lively and creative Often participate in collaborative learning because learning social skills is so important in this stage of life Are expected to become more responsible for their own learning and conduct What is collaborative learning? Learning that takes place when students work in groups to discuss and solve problems together. Are encouraged to structure their time and make plans then organize and carry out these plans. Teachers need to help them build these and other skills and habits to prepare them for high school.

18 Teaching as a Profession
High Schools Students are studying subjects even more in depth, have new subject areas, and 5-7 different classes and teachers. Students: Are expected to take primary responsibility for their learning Are expected to ask for help if they don’t understand Usually have a lot of homework and long-term projects Routinely practice solving problems by gathering and evaluating information Assignments require complex thinking skills

19 Teaching as a Profession
High Schools Teachers: Typically specialize in one subject or a group of related subjects Need more content depth Must have at least a bachelor’s degree from a 4-year college or university Must be certified to teach in their state Additional responsibilities (study hall monitor, school organization advisor, tutor, coach, chaperone at events, etc.) Some are part of their regular duty others are additional with extra pay Have some flexibility in what and how they teach They determine how much to emphasize various topics and how best to present them (teacher presentation, group discussion, lab, or combination of these and other techniques)

20 Teaching as a Profession
Teaching Specialists Include: Elementary—music or physical education Middle school—foreign languages (ex: Spanish and Chinese) Reading specialists Special education teachers Work with students with special learning needs Use various techniques to help students learn Work with a team of specialists (often a therapist and psychologist) and the child’s parents or guardians to develop a plan of action Some work with students with specific impairments in speech, hearing, sight, or language Work with regular education teachers to help them adapt their teaching for these students Others help with children with emotional problems that impact their learning

21 Teaching as a Profession
Teaching Specialists Special education teachers—Continued Some work with students with more severe developmental or learning disabilities Work with these students on: basic literacy skills and life skills (social skills, self-care skills, and job-related skills) Career and technical education teachers (CTE) Instruct and train students to work in a variety of careers Assist students in exploring these careers and connecting classroom learning with the real world Include: trade and industrial fields (ex: automotive), family and consumer sciences (ex: food production), health occupations field, public safety and security, and other technical areas. CTE teachers teach in middle schools, high schools, and two-year colleges.

22 Teaching as a Profession
Postsecondary Education Programs What is postsecondary education? Education that takes place after high school. Technical Schools Designed to teach specific skills needed to work in a trade Also called: trade schools, vocational colleges, business schools, technical institutes, or fashion institutes Courses of study are focused and generally shorter than college programs Teaching at Technical Schools College degrees are preferred but having related skills and experience is most important Ex: to teach Culinary Arts at a technical school, a teacher might have experience as a head chef.

23 Teaching as a Profession
Postsecondary Education Programs Community Colleges Focus on meeting the educational and training needs of the communities they serve Most offer two-year associate’s degrees May offer programs that lead to certifications (ex: respiratory therapy, welding) Some students attend for two years then transfer to a four-year degree program This requires close coordination between the two schools to make sure the classes will transfer Students usually save on educational costs by doing this Entrance generally open to anyone with a high school diploma Diverse types of students Over 1000 community colleges in the US and serve almost half of high school graduates each year

24 Teaching as a Profession
Postsecondary Education Programs Teaching at Community Colleges Many positions exist Most require a minimum of a master’s degree (a two-year degree beyond the traditional four-year college degree) Must be prepared for working with students at various skill levels because of the diversity of types of students Full and part time students Recent high school graduates Adults High school students taking classes for college credit Adults trying to complete a degree they started but didn’t finish Employees trying to improve current job skills or studying for a new occupation

25 Teaching as a Profession
Postsecondary Education Programs Four-year colleges and universities Traditional places for higher education Colleges vs. Universities While the two are often used interchangeably they are different—universities offer graduate degree programs Colleges often offer degrees in one area, while universities offer degrees in a variety of areas because they’re actually composed of a collection of colleges Students complete general education classes (sometimes called core courses) plus classes specific to their area of specialization

26 Teaching as a Profession
Postsecondary Education Programs Teaching at Colleges & Universities Specialize in one particular area and teach a limited number of different courses Most require a doctorate degree (usually called a PhD or EdD) However, most schools also have professors with master’s degrees Professors are often expected to conduct research in their field and do scholarly writing in addition to their teaching duties

27 Teaching as a Profession
Teaching in Other Settings Business and Industry Corporate trainers—provide education to a businesses employees Full-time, part-time, or self-employed Types of Education depend on company’s needs Technical work skills Motivation Effective Communication Leadership Team building Foreign language Other Examples: history of destination (travel agency), classes or one-on-one instruction for children undergoing long-term treatment in hospitals Teachers must adapt their basic skills to fit the situation.

28 Teaching as a Profession
Teaching in Other Settings Adult Education Literacy programs—improving reading skills or learning English General Equivalency Diploma (GED) programs General or specific job skills Technical skills (ex: computer skills) Personal enrichment Continuing education (some professional degrees require this to maintain or renew licenses)

29 Teaching as a Profession
Teaching in Other Settings Adult Education Ongoing need Often government funded but can be supported through private funds or by for-profit companies Can be offered at community colleges and universities (but the classes do not normally lead to a degree) Also offered at job training centers Teachers perform the same roles as they would in schools but their audience is different Career opportunities range from teaching one course to a full-time position Teachers perform the same roles as they would in schools, but their audience is different. Career opportunities range from teaching one course to a full-time position.

30 Teaching as a Profession
Teaching in Other Settings Cooperative Extension Service Cooperative Extension educators, or agents, are community leaders Teach individuals and communities Provide technical assistance to agricultural producers and small business owners Often coordinate with 4-H (youth leadership) Professional employees of state universities and are supported by the federal government Job duties vary (formal to informal educational outreach) In TX, it’s known as Texas AgriLife Extension Service and is associated with Texas A & M.

31 Teaching as a Profession
Teaching in Other Settings Sports and Fitness Programs Coaches, athletic trainers, athletic directors, aerobics instructors, camp directors, and recreation specialists Knowledge and experience needed but a degree isn’t always required Need to be able to motivate others to learn and accomplish their goals Could be hired by private gyms or be self-employed Clubs, Community Organizations, and Religious Groups Boys and Girls Clubs of America, summer camps, or park districts Organizations and communities sponsor educational opportunities such as gardening, cooking, defensive driving, and religious studies Music teachers might be hired to provide music and lead choirs for religious groups

32 Teaching as a Profession
Employment Opportunities and Trends There will always be a need for teachers! Education is the key to a successful society Over the next ten years, it is predicted there will be need for over two million new teachers in schools alone! Why such a big need? Teachers retiring Educational reform Population growth Math and science teachers are in greater demand Bilingual teachers is growing in demand in certain parts of the country Special education teachers also in demand Teachers willing to relocate are at an advantage Teachers are always in demand!

33 Teaching as a Profession
Teacher Salaries and Benefits They vary considerably depending upon: Location Amount of Education Additional pay for coaching and advising clubs/organizations Public schools usually pay more than private schools Some teachers take on part-time jobs during their summer break to boost income Pay increase with more education (ex: earning a master’s) Benefits vary by district but most include: Health insurance Retirement Savings Plan Experience Additional responsibilities Leave of absence (paid or unpaid) Various other benefits (travel expenses or education repayment) Some districts offer signing bonuses in an effort to gain top teaching candidates A few districts offer home loan assistance or tax breaks for living within the district

34 End of Chapter One Review Date: _____________
TEST Date: ______________

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