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1 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 The Organizing.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 The Organizing."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ The Organizing Process

2 2 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Learning Points 1.Organizational principles/Basic guidelines. 2.Organizational structures. 3.Centralization vs. Decentralization.

3 3 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ “Elements of organizational principles (Assumptions for management)?”

4 4 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

5 5 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ The Organization Chart Identifies lines of authority. Gives employees a better understanding of the formal structure of the organization. Helps identify areas of overlapping responsibility that should be eliminated. Identifies promotional opportunities for job applicants and new employees. Identifies areas suitable for training and orientation.

6 6 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Organizing Function is Helpful By: 1. Assuring more efficient use of the organization’s resources (Allocative efficiency). 2. Improving employee understanding of job duties and responsibilities. 3. Improving employee morale (motivated employees). 4. Providing a sense of direction for each of the organization’s functional areas.

7 7 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Organization’s Objectives Should be written in context of outcomes, understood and accepted by employees, be measurable, contain a time reference, and be challenging but attainable. Unity of direction Subordination of individual interests to the common interest

8 8 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Span of Control Refers to the number of subordinates an individual is able to supervise. Generally, 6 to 14 (<20) subordinates per manager. Division of Work

9 9 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Interrelated Functions Organization’s functions have become so interrelated that when a problem arises in one functional area, other related functions are also likely to be affected. Centralization or Decentralization Esprit de corps (Group harmony)

10 10 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Chain of Command Identifies who reports to whom within an organization. Two types: 1.Vertical chain (Top-down, Bottom-up) 2.Horizontal chain. Scalar Chain

11 11 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Unity of Command States that each employee should be directly responsible to one supervisor. One-boss system vs. Two-boss system.

12 12 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Authority and Responsibility States that individuals who are given the responsibility to undertake a task must also be given an appropriate amount of authority to ensure task completion.

13 13 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Work Assignment States that each employee’s work assignments should be based on his/her special strengths and talents. Remuneration of personnel (Fair compensation) Stability of personnel tenure (Job Security) Order (Right person for right place)

14 14 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Employee Empowerment States that empowered employees are encouraged to participate as much as possible in making decisions that affect all aspects of their job tasks. Initiative Discipline (Mutual agreement) ==== MBOs

15 15 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Line Line and Staff Functional Product division Committee Matrix Organizational Structures Start working on Ch2 worksheet!

16 16 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Line Structure Is the oldest and simplest of structures. Has direct authority flowing vertically from the top. Is generally found in small organizations because support staff is needed once they begin to grow.

17 17 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Board President VP MarketingVP ProductionVP Service PromotionSalesPurchaseForemanSupervisorPurchase

18 18 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Advantages of Line Structure 2. Decision making is expedited. 3. Is a simple structure to understand. 1. Employees are fully aware of the boundaries of their jobs. 4. Employees can be held directly accountable when they fail to perform as expected.

19 19 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Disadvantages of Line Structure 2. Line managers need to begin to perform specialized activities. 1. Fails to provide specialization needed when organization begins to grow.

20 20 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Line and Staff Structure Has line authority similar to line structure. Staff employees assist the line function. Specialized staff activities are added that support line activities.

21 21 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Board President VP MarketingVP ProductionVP Finance Promotion AuditingForeman Comptroller Purchase VP Corp. Affairs Sales Office Service HR

22 22 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Line Employees Staff Employees Line employees are directly concerned with the organization’s primary objectives. Staff employees support the line employees.

23 23 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Advantages of Line and Staff Structure 2. Staff employees can lend their specialized support. 1. Line employees have time to focus on those activities directly related to the organization’s primary objectives. 3. Flexibility of staff units facilitates undertaking new projects.

24 24 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Disadvantages of Line and Staff Structure 1. Line and staff employees sometimes are in conflict with one another. 2. Line employees sometimes suppress the talents of staff employees.

25 25 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Exercise Wilcox company (Equipment manufacturing) Founded and owned by Sean and David Cox) Market expansion (Increased sales volume) --- Marginal profits for years 6 employees are taking general management responsibilities 6 employees are involved in either marketing or production. Try to hire new managers. You are consultant for Wilcox company. You have to know the following issues. Current org. structure and recommended org. structure(s) Problems for current org. structures and management. Possible problems for new org. structures and management.

26 26 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Exercise Current org. structure and recommended org. structure(s) Current: Poorly designed line structure. Recommendations: (1) Current structure with several temporary workers. (2)Well defined line structure (3) Line and Staff structure Problems for current org. structures and management. 1.Poor definitions of authority and responsibility 2.Poor structural design 3.Poor operational design (Efficiency and Effectiveness) 4.“Owner-Manager” issues in the stage of growth. 5.Demand projections. Possible problems for new org. structures and management. 1.Confusions (Efficiency and Effectiveness) of new structure 2.Resistance to the new system and structure 3.“Owner-Manager” issues as barriers for transformation and growth 4.“Old boys” vs. “New comers”

27 27 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Division Structure Each major product is given division status. Incorporates line and staff structure into these divisions. Each product tends to operate independently of other divisions. Company’s products provide a basis for its structure.

28 28 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

29 29 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

30 30 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Advantages of Division Structure 2. Divisions can coordinate their own activities without constraint from main unit. 1. Enables divisions to develop processes that best meet their needs.

31 31 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Disadvantages of Division Structure 2. Problems of some divisions may eventually be felt throughout the entire organization. 1. Divisions can “go their own way” to the extent that they don’t work toward common goals.

32 32 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Matrix Structure Is often used by organizations undertaking complex projects. Results in the formation of temporary new units to accommodate the undertaking of a new project. Involves temporarily borrowing employees from other areas of the organization and assigning them to the new temporary unit.

33 33 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

34 34 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Advantages of Matrix Structure 2. Helps companies avoid having to hire new employees for a project. 1. Allows companies to assign employees on the basis of their expertise. 3. Enables companies to adapt quickly to new situations.

35 35 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Disadvantages of Matrix Structure 2. Employees may experience job-related pressures. 1. Employees often have two supervisors. 3. Managers may have difficulties coordinating employee activities.

36 36 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Centralization Decentralization Places related activities under jurisdiction of one individual. Places related activities under jurisdiction of several individuals throughout the organization. Efficiency and Effectiveness (Cost-pressure and Local responsiveness)

37 37 Administrative Office Management, 8/e by Zane Quible ©2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ Factors That Determine Feasibility of Centralization Factors That Determine Feasibility of Centralization 1. Nature of the organization. 2. Size of the organization. 3. Diversification of the organization. 4. Conformity to standardized processes. 5. Quality of personnel. 6. Distribution of operations. 7. Attitude of personnel.


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