Presentation on theme: "THE CRISES OF PUBLIC SERVICE BROADCASTING A RESEARCH CONCEPT IN THE INTEREST OF PUBLIC VALUE Thomas A. Bauer, University of Vienna, Austria MEDIA IN CRISIS."— Presentation transcript:
THE CRISES OF PUBLIC SERVICE BROADCASTING A RESEARCH CONCEPT IN THE INTEREST OF PUBLIC VALUE Thomas A. Bauer, University of Vienna, Austria MEDIA IN CRISIS – CRISES IN MEDIA III. COMMUNICATION FORUM BRATISLAVA 2. –
Research Questions – general THE CRISES OF PUBLIC SERVICE BROADCASTING What is the character and what is the reason of the crisis of Public Service Broadcasting (PSB) Why is the concept of Public Value (PV) a concept of critical analysis What is the specific core of the discussion on Public Value? What is the relevant focal point that has to be worked out in the scientific analysis of Public Value in respect to the Austrian situation? What structures have to be developed in order to create a PV friendly media environment?
Research Questions – specified THE CRISES OF PUBLIC SERVICE BROADCASTING What constitutes the public additional benefit of the program of ORF and und how can it be quantified? Who shall measure/quantify and who shall control the public value ? Which institution has to be established fort hat? What sanctions must be developed? Is Public Value generally definable or must there be developed a special definition for each country – according to their specific cultural and media environments? What are the legal, structural and economic frame conditions for the public broadcasting in Austria? What are the EU- institutional frame conditions for the public broadcasting in Austria? What are the frame conditions fort he public broadcasting systems in other EU countries (comparative studies)? Which Public-Value-Models can by found in other countries? What are the experiences with them?
Research Questions – Quality Factors THE CRISES OF PUBLIC SERVICE BROADCASTING Journalistic Independence: how can this be guaranteed within Public Broadcasting Systems? Target Groups: How can the Public Broadcasting System reach young people to shape out the future audience? Technology: How far are technologies decisive in the development of future strategies fort he Public Broadcasting System? Content: What program innovations will be need for future of a Public Broadcasting System regarding the content of media communication? (Discussion: news or/and entertainment)?
Research Questions – Media Management THE CRISES OF PUBLIC SERVICE BROADCASTING Media: What role does the concept of Public Value play in respect to the self-representation of media? Quality Management: Which methods for quality management and evaluation needs the concept of Public Value? Quota Management: What is the meaning of quota in respect to Public Value? How economically successful should a Public Broadcasting System work, in order to give space to PV- programs? Audience: What is the strategy of media management to understand needs of the audience and to decide for dos and donts in shaping out the program Finance: What are the models of financing a media program that foster PV at its best: Fee, Tax, Pay per view?
Research Questions – Acteurs and Participants THE CRISES OF PUBLIC SERVICE BROADCASTING Journalistic / Non-journalistic formats: What are the achievements of journalistic, what those of non-journalistic content from the perspective of the audience? Which PV impact is in news, entertainment, service, educational or cultural programs? What are the PV competences of citizen journalism, blogs and other new models of public communication? Audience: What is the level of media literacy of the audience (restrictive versus elaborated levels according to the conditions of stratification and of migration status) and what is the media awareness in respect to political topics and society-relevant discourse (direction of agenda setting)? Representation: According to what measures are which societal groups represented in the program? Fairness for Minorities? Culture of Diversity? Participation: How is ensured the participation of all groups and stratifications in program development, program organization and program creation?
Grid of Coordinates for a Research Approach THE CRISES OF PUBLIC SERVICE BROADCASTING Debate Provoking Factors: Democracy Development / Democracy in Transition - increasing mediality of democracy: society in the habitus of media: attention, display, staging, effect -civil society as a new mechanism of public trust Social Change: -black-out of frames of reference: nation, language, history, heroes -discovery of weakness of institutions - new categories in constructing identity: mobility, migration, diversity Media Change: -technological development -media literacy / media use / media culture -media convergence
Grid of Coordinates for a Research Approach THE CRISES OF PUBLIC SERVICE BROADCASTING Debate Environment: Public Broadcasting Systems as public institutions - different categories of description over public valuable -functions / relevance of public-private-model-distinction ? Public Value a value of democracy competence: - capacity, reference and responsibility Public Value as a theoretical concept: -describing the added value generated in context of macro-economy (empirical perspective) -referring to the principles of negotiation of social trust (critical- theoretical perspective) -reminding public institutions of public expectations for democratic habit (normative perspective) Public Value Test: - done as a branding of/for BBC ?
Grid of Coordinates for a Research Approach THE CRISES OF PUBLIC SERVICE BROADCASTING Development in Europe – For example Austria: Broadcasting System: Dual System (support system fro comm and private) Public Value Obligation: ORF (demand fees) Public Value Competition between PSB, commercial and free channels Outcome Interests: Public Value redefined Moral level : PV as intrinsic model of value Critical-theoretical level: new concept of public sphere based on participation, not on power Critical-emancipative perspective: PV concept based on principles of communication ecology: sustainability of communication values Practical level: fair distribution of resources in production (quality management) and consumption (media competence development)
Grid of Coordinates for a Research Approach THE CRISES OF PUBLIC SERVICE BROADCASTING Research Perspectives Political and Cultural Context: decrease of political influence European Context: harmonization Media Context: media and media culture change Structural Change of Society: migration, mobility Globalization Perspective: cultural convergence
Debate Environment: Media Policy THE CHALLENGE OF PUBLIC VALUE New discourse quality on PV in Europe: from ideological or strategic level to research level): Public Broadcasting Systems: – loosing institutional trust (general de-institutionalization of political society) – PBS - not longer the natural holder of PV-certification and credibility, since PBS as well help themselves with commercial strategies of program development and market power Public Value Test A strategic tool of verifying the legitimacy of public media institutions: start with BBC: The Public Value Test made the concept of PV becoming the factor of affirming the PBS
Debate Environment: Media Theory THE CHALLENGE OF PUBLIC VALUE PV – a value of democratic responsibility of media within a media-organized society - usable as a crucial factor for evaluation of public relevance of programs as an invention of a complex of parameters for the EU harmonization program in media politics as a result of market competition within the triangle: fee, commercials, quality as a public model of media communication to be discussed and reformed in respect to the social change / media change
Debate Environment: Knowledge Concept THE CHALLENGE OF PUBLIC VALUE Public Value as an empirical concept on theory level – - a market-economical term based on the concept of natural justice: it is a term - taken from political- and micro-economy – referring to goods of which the monetary value is too open and too diverse to be quantified exactly, though their existence makes the life of citizens worth living: clean air, freedom of speech, and other abstract goods of which the value is acknowledged in civilian societies - functions expected by citizens from state. To relate PBS to the sphere of PV seems to be evident in respect of communication and media society (Marcus L. Blömeke)
Debate Environment: Knowledge Concept THE CHALLENGE OF PUBLIC VALUE Public Value as a critical concept in theory level – - a model of social/societal trust: modern societies are based on the principle of anticipation and fulfilment of trust: trust constitutes the value of abstract goods. In that theoretical environment PV is a model of social trust and a model for public quality of organizations and their product, embedded either - in public law institutions - in private law organizations - or in commercial companies
Debate Environment: Knowledge Concept THE CHALLENGE OF PUBLIC VALUE Public Value as a normative concept on theory level - - a model for the democratic habit of media communication: since PV is a model for abstract goods generated and negotiated as a barter trade, in the context of media communication PV is not just a good managed by media management or through journalism (quality of production), but more the political dimension of the participation model within the structural system of social practice of medialized social interaction: production- consumption-negotiation – contextual complex
Debate Environment: Knowledge Concept THE CHALLENGE OF PUBLIC VALUE Public Value as a concept of emancipative Interest of knowledge - a model of and for ecological media communication values: sustainability effects of media communication: -establishing critical interest in meaningful discourse -maintaining a participation habitus ( Bourdieu – Chomsky: generative ability) -developing Knowledge : indeepening and differentiation -transparency of production and quality factors -media literacy and communication competence -connecting communication interests
Example Austria: Dual Broadcasting System – Organizational Versions Public Law constituted Broadcasting : ORF Commercial TV stations: ATV, Puls4, go-tv, Austrian windows RTL, Pro7 Free (non-commercial) Media Projects: Okto Community TV, Radio: Orange 94 and others (local) PV parameters for arguing a PV holding position (ORF): 5 values defined as constitutive for PV (ORF Public Value Competence in information, entertainment, education): Individual value: trust, service, entertainment, knowledge, responsibility Social value: diversity, orientation, integration, close to citizen, cultural assignment Austria-Value: identity, creation of value, federalism International Value: European Integration, global perspective Business Venture Value: innovation, transparency, competence Connected to that just see the scope of interpretation -especially: identity, integration, diversity and heterogeneity of society
Example Austria: ORF: By Public Law Constituted Broadcasting System 50 % public fee, 50 % commercial income, assignment by public law: duty of provision of all parts of population, program duty: objectivity, diversity, balance in relation to political parties and societal arrangements in groups, comprehensiveness, preferences for news, education, science, culture, art, religion As a public law institution ORF claims to fulfil the conditions of Public Value through its institutional character – and thus legitimates the privileged collection of charges
Example Austria: ORF Position: Broadcasting is a public assignment (BVG Rundfunk 1974), providing the whole country with quality program, covering Austria as a discourse and as an event, Building Austrian Identity, resp. European Identity in Austria, High Quality Standards in program management and program production, often against quota reasonability, serves especially social, ethnic, cultural marginal groups and minorities, the coverage is at about 38% share in the market. Special factor in Austria: many irradiating same language programmes coming from Germany
Example Austria: Okto Community TV: Participative TV Programme Program produced by community teams on voluntary basis no commercials, support by City of Vienna, but free of any dependency brings communities, populations and topics on screen that are underexposed in mainstream tv programmes, special social effects: integration, transcultural understanding, societal cohesion among groups being in conflict at origin region, contribution to development of culture, multi-language programme, learning media competence / media literacy
Example Austria: Okto - Position: Arguments for a PV standard and because of that for a 2% part of charge and extraordinary public support: engaged in integrative communication Okto is according to a research of Cathren Edwards (30 community programme stations worldwide) a program most affiliated to the diversity of social groups, most engaged and involved in cultural affairs and very close to a highly sophisticated program. It reaches 2.4 technical coverage
Example Austria: The commercial programme providers (Puls 4, ATV etc) also claim for recognition in partially producing Public Value containing programme (news on RTL Austria, also in parts of documentaries, political talk- shows and even entertaining program) in same time criticising that the ORF has a comparably much more comfortable starting position having the fee and in somehow the same amount income by commercial business. This, so the argument of commercial programs, by trend causes a market distortion.
Referencies Bauer, Thomas A : Wertegemeinschaft und Mediengesellschaft. In: Bauer, Thomas /Ortner, Gerhard E. (eds.): Werte für Europa. Medienkultur und ethische Bildung in und für Europa. Düsseldorf Hepp, Andreas/Höhn, Marco/Wimmer, Jeffrey (2010): Medienkultur im Wandel. Konstanz Karmasin, Matthias, ed. (2002): Medien und Ethik. Stuttgart Luhmann, Niklas (1968): Vertrauen. Ein Mechanismus der Reduktion sozialer Komplexität. Stuttgart Luhmann, Niklas (2004): Die Realität der Massenmedien. Wiesbaden (3.ed) Schmidt, Siegfried J. (2003): Geschichten & Diskurse. Abschied vom Konstruktivismus. Reinbeck Thomas, Tanja, ed. (2008): Medienkultur und soziales Handeln. Wiesbaden