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Protestant Baroque. Restrained or Protestant Baroque Dutch Republic Dutch Republic Calvinist Calvinist Visual arts? Visual arts? Not commissioned by Churches.

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Presentation on theme: "Protestant Baroque. Restrained or Protestant Baroque Dutch Republic Dutch Republic Calvinist Calvinist Visual arts? Visual arts? Not commissioned by Churches."— Presentation transcript:

1 Protestant Baroque

2 Restrained or Protestant Baroque Dutch Republic Dutch Republic Calvinist Calvinist Visual arts? Visual arts? Not commissioned by Churches Not commissioned by Churches Religious art is subtle Religious art is subtle Home decoration Home decoration Still life Still life Landscapes Landscapes Portraits Portraits People at work People at work Rembrant van Rijn ( ) Rembrant van Rijn ( ) Jan Vermeer ( ) Jan Vermeer ( )

3 Protestant Baroque Music

4 Handel and Oratorio After Italian opera went out of fashion, he turned to Oratorio After Italian opera went out of fashion, he turned to Oratorio In English In English Musical style Musical style Choruses Choruses Recitative Recitative Arias (da capo) Arias (da capo)

5 The Messiah (1742) First performed in Dublin for charity First performed in Dublin for charity

6 Johann Sebastian Bach Age 35 Age 50

7 Kapellmeister at Cöthen The Prince was a Calvinist The Prince was a Calvinist Bach concentrated on secular music Bach concentrated on secular music Well-Tempered Clavier Well-Tempered Clavier Concertos Concertos

8 The Brandenburg Concertos 6 Concertos for various combinations of instruments 6 Concertos for various combinations of instruments No. 5 in D Major (harpsichord, violin, flute, strings, and continuo) No. 5 in D Major (harpsichord, violin, flute, strings, and continuo) [We must now digress a bit to catch you up on the Concerto; well return to Bach in a few minutes]

9 The Concerto Grosso Contrast between large and small groups of players Contrast between large and small groups of players Ripieno or tutti Ripieno or tutti concertino concertino Solo concerto- large group and soloist Solo concerto- large group and soloist Three movements: Fast, slow, fast Three movements: Fast, slow, fast Dynamics? Dynamics?

10 The Concerto: Ritornello Form Ritornello contrast Ritornello contrast Ritornello Tutti Concertino Tutti Concertino Tutti Tutti Concertino Tutti Concertino Tutti Main key contrasting Main

11 Antonio Vivaldi ( ) Worked for an orphanage in Venice Worked for an orphanage in Venice Composed over 450 concertos Composed over 450 concertos The Four Seasons (1725) The Four Seasons (1725) La Primavera (Spring), Op. 8, No. 1 La Primavera (Spring), Op. 8, No. 1

12 First Movement: Allegro Spring has come, and joyfully, The birds greet it with a happy song. And the streams, fanned by gentle breezes, Flow along with a sweet murmur. Covering the sky with a black cloak, Thunder and lighting come to announce the season. When these have quieted down, the little birds Return to their enchanting song.

13 The Brandenburg Concertos 6 Concertos for various combinations of instruments 6 Concertos for various combinations of instruments No. 5 in D Major (harpsichord, violin, flute, strings, and continuo) No. 5 in D Major (harpsichord, violin, flute, strings, and continuo) Three movements Three movements Fast – slow – fast Fast – slow – fast Ritornello form Ritornello form

14 Leipzig Kantor, Director of Choir and Music in Leipzig Kantor, Director of Choir and Music in Leipzig Composed and directed music for the Churches (Lutheran) in Town Composed and directed music for the Churches (Lutheran) in Town Taught music and Latin at the St. Thomas School Taught music and Latin at the St. Thomas School Directed Collegium Musicum (1729) Directed Collegium Musicum (1729)

15 Leipzig in 1720

16 Thomaskirche in Bachs Time

17 NikolaikircheThomaskirche

18 Bachs responsibilities for Church music A cantata performed for the two main churches every other week A cantata performed for the two main churches every other week For his first few years there he completed cycles of cantatas for the liturgical year For his first few years there he completed cycles of cantatas for the liturgical year The choir consisted of boys from the Thomas School, and the orchestra was from the town band The choir consisted of boys from the Thomas School, and the orchestra was from the town band Rehearsals on Saturdays Rehearsals on Saturdays

19 Cantata Opening Chorus (often an arr. of a chorale) Recitative Aria or duet Sermon (lasted about an hour) Recitative Aria or duet Chorale

20 Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731) The scripture reading for the day (Matt. 25): At that time the kingdom of heaven will be like ten virgins who took their lamps and went out to meet the bridegroom. Five of them were foolish and five were wise. The foolish ones took their lamps but did not take any oil with them. The wise, however, took oil in jars along with their lamps. The bridegroom was a long time in coming, and they all became drowsy and fell asleep.

21 Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731) At midnight the cry rang out: Heres the bridegroom! Come out to meet him! Then all the virgins woke up and trimmed their lamps. The foolish ones said to the wise, Give us some of your oil; our lamps are going out. No, they replied, there may not be enough for both us and you. Instead go and buy some for yourselves. But while they were on their way to buy the oil, the bridegroom arrived. The virgins who were ready went in with him to the wedding banquet. And the door was shut.

22 Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731) Later the others also came. Sir! Sir! they said. Open the door for us! But he replied, I tell you the truth, I dont know you. Therefore keep watch, because you do not know the day or the hour.

23 Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731): First movement Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme Der Wächter sehr hoch auf der Zinne Wach auf, du Jerusalem! Mitternacht heisst diese Stunde; Sie rufen uns mit hellem Munde: Wo seid ihr klugen Jungfrauen? Awake, the voice of watchmen calls us from high on the tower, Awake, Jerusalem! Midnight is this very hour; They call us with bright voices: Where are you, wise virgins?

24 Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731) Wohl auf, der Bräutgam kömmt, steht auf, die Lampen nehmt! Alleluja! Macht euch bereit Zu der Hochzeit Ihr müsset ihm entgegen gehn. Take cheer, the bridegroom comes, Arise, take up your lamps! Hallelujah! Prepare yourselves For the wedding, You must go forth to meet him.

25 Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731): 4 th movement Zion hört die Wächter singen, Das Herz tut ihr vor Freuden springen, Sie wachet und steht eilend auf. Zion hears the watchmen singing, For joy her very heart is springing, She wakes and rises hastily.

26 Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731): 4 th movement Ihr Freund kommt von Himmel Prächtig, Von Gnaden stark, von Wahrheit mächtig, Ihr Licht wird hell, ihr Stern geht auf. From heaven comes her friend resplendent, Sturdy in grace, mighty in truth, Her light shines bright, her star ascends.

27 Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731): 4 th movement Nun komm, du werte Kron, Herr Jesu, Gottes Sohn. Hosianna! Wir folgen all zum Freudensaal Und halten mit das Abendmahl. Now come, you worthy crown, Lord Jesus, Gods own Son. Hosanna! We all follow to the joyful hall And share the Lords Supper.

28 Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731): 7th movement Gloria sei dir gesungen Mit Menschen und englischen Zungen, Mit Harfen und mit Zimbeln Schön… Gloria be sung to you With mens and angels tongues, With harps and beautiful cymbals…


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