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Acceleration

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**Definition: Acceleration**

Vector quantity: magnitude (value) & direction Rate at which an object changes its velocity. “How fast an object is getting faster” If the velocity of an object is changing, it is accelerating!

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**Definition: Acceleration**

“How fast an object is getting faster” Every second, object goes 10 m/s faster to the north Units are: Meters per second per second m/s/s

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**Equation: Acceleration**

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**Animation: Acceleration**

Physics Classroom: Acceleration Animation

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**Constant Acceleration**

Velocity changes by a constant amount each second. The magnitude can change. (How fast it is going) And/or…. The direction can change. An object with a constant velocity is not accelerating. In this class, ALL acceleration will be constant.

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**Accelerating Objects Are Changing Their Velocity**

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**Equation: Acceleration**

𝑎𝑐𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛= 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒 = ∆ 𝑣 ∆ 𝑡 = 𝑣 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 − 𝑣 𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑡 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 − 𝑡 𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 A car goes from 0 m/s to 40 m/s in 10 seconds. What is the acceleration of the car? Accel = 𝑣 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 − 𝑣 𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑡 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 − 𝑡 𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 = 𝑚 𝑠𝑒𝑐 − 0 𝑚/𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝑠𝑒𝑐 −0 𝑠𝑒𝑐 = 40 𝑚/𝑠𝑒𝑐 10 𝑠𝑒𝑐 = 4 m/s /s

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**A car traveling at 60 mph accelerates to 90 mph in 3 seconds**

A car traveling at 60 mph accelerates to 90 mph in 3 seconds. What is the car’s acceleration? Acceleration = Velocity(final) - Velocity(original) time = 90 mph - 60 mph 3 seconds = 30 mph 3 seconds = 10 mph/second

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Study in Acceleration Rocket Sled

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**Graphing: Acceleration**

Position vs. Time Velocity vs. Time Accel. vs. Time Slope of x vs. t = velocity Slope of v vs. t = acceleration

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**Graphing: Acceleration**

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Change in Velocity

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- Speed vs Time Graph: Constant acceleration produces a straight line (linear slope, rise/run a = v/t

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Free fall The constant acceleration of an object moving only under the force of gravity (g). The acceleration caused by gravity is 10 m/s2 If there was no air, all objects would fall at the same speed Doesn’t depend on mass After 1 second falling at 10 m/s After 2 seconds 20 m/s 3 seconds 30 m/s

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**Falling Air resistance will increase as it falls faster**

An upward force on the object Eventually gravity will balance with air resistance Reaches terminal velocity - highest speed reached by a falling object.

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**Terminal velocity air resistance increases as you speed up**

Force of gravity is constant air resistance increases as you speed up until the force is equal Equal forces, no acceleration constant velocity terminal velocity

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**Balloon Racers What will happen if I let go of the blown up balloon?**

Why did that happen? How can we measure the speed, distance or acceleration of the balloon? A track? Attach the balloon to something?

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