Presentation on theme: "[Module 1] City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values"— Presentation transcript:
1[Module 1] City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values
2City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values What is urban sanitation?Status and common threats of sanitation in Indian citiesNUSP and former policy schemes targeting sanitationRationale and added value of a CSPRating of sanitation in your city
3Sanitation – Definition Safe management of human excreta including its safe confinement, collection, treatment, disposal and associated hygiene-related practices (NUSP).Notes:
4Sanitation and public health Quiz: Are you aware of the faecal - oral transmission routePrimary barrier e.g.:safe excreta disposal (toilets),protecting water sourceswater handlinghand washing at critical timesfood hygieneSecondary barrier e.g:food hygiene (cover food, wash, cook vegetables before use),avoid barefoot walking,- use slippers,deal with pets & animals with carePThe scheme shows the faecal – oral transmission route of pathogens which can cause severe problems for public and individual health.The four ellipses in the center symbolize four possible transmission paths for pathogens. These can be controlled by various strategies making use of primary and secondary barriers.Assign the following four terms to the correct transmission paths considering the effects of possible primary and secondary barriers:Fingers, Fields, Flies, FluidsSPPSReferences:The economic impacts of inadequate sanitation in India, WSP, 2006SFaecesFoodNew hostPModified & developed (Dabrase, Pramod; Bank, Peter , 2012) after (1)
51 gram of excreta can contain Sanitation and public healthAnswer to quiz: Are you aware of the faecal - oral transmission route1 gram of excreta can contain1,00,00,000 viruses10,00,000 bacteria1,000 parasite cysts100 parasite eggsEach time an adult human defecates about 250 gram of excretaFood sanitation and improved sanitation can reduce diarrheal morbidity –Hand washing with soap: 30%Point of use Water treatment : 39%Sanitation (toilet): 32%Common diseases are:Diarrhoea, Cholera, Malaria, Intestinal worms, Hepatitis, Typhoid, Polio, AscariasisFluidPPSFieldsReferences:The economic impacts of inadequate sanitation in India, WSP, 2006SFaecesFoodNew hostFliesFingersPModified & developed (Dabrase, Pramod; Bank, Peter , 2012) after (1)
6Impacts of inadequate sanitation Human healthGlobal death toll: more than 2.2 million people per year, mostly children under age of 5 years17% of total deaths among children under age of 5In India more than 2,000 children below 5 years die every dayGender aspectsWomen & girls face drudgery & serious health disorders – due to lack and dirtiness of toilets, lack of private places, long waiting timeGirls lose school days, discontinue schoolsHigh rate of crimes and violence against women - when they are out for defecationIndirect impactsContamination and eutrophication of the environment (soils, ground water, water bodies)Reduced ecosystem servicesReduced value of properties,Reduced income from tourismReduced scenic beautyEconomyMore than 2 billions of human hours lost annuallyEconomic costs related to health care expenses = INR 212 billion/yearProductivity loss due to helath problems caused by inadequate sanitation = INR 217 billion/yearNotes:
7Quiz: Are you aware of the economic impacts of inadequate sanitation in India?
8Answer to quiz: Are you aware of the economic impacts of inadequate sanitation in India?
9Answer to quiz: Are you aware of the economic impacts of inadequate sanitation in India?
10Waters to be managed by urban sanitation Grey water consists of waste water from bathroom, laundry, etc.Black water consists of waste water from toilets. Major difference between grey water and black water is its pollution load (carry diseases causing pathogens) making black water harmful to human beingsStorm water runoff can be polluted / loaded with septic tank overflow, faeces, pet waste, oil, heavy metals, organic pollutants etc.
12Sanitation scheme in future – ecological sanitation: from linear to closed loop Notes:Source: Water and Wastewater in Asia - The Imperative for New Approaches to Urban Water and Wastewater Management, ADB & Partners Conference, Manila, 12 October, 2010, Paul Reiter, Executive Director, International Water Association
13Status and challenges for sanitation in Indian cities Source: Centre for Science and Environment (2012): Excreta Matters – A profile oft he water and sewage situation in 71 Indian cities (Citizen’s Seventh Report on the State of India’s Environment)Source: MoUD (GTZ-ASEM Consultation workshop on City Sanitation Plans, April 16th, 2010, New Delhi):between 28-40% of the households are connected to a sewage system, whilst 34-46% rely on often uncontrolled on site disposal,This ends up in safe disposal of human excreta of only 18-52% of Indian households, whilst excreta of 48-82% of the households are disposed unsafe
14Status and challenges for sanitation in Indian cities Infra- structureAccess to serviceInstitutional ArrangeentsService usage
15Funding schemes before NUSP IDSMT1979small townssanitation amongst othersILCSS1980reduce manual scavengingimprove latrinesMega City Scheme1993JNNURMsince 2005citiesintegrated infrastructure developmentbasic services for urban poorNotes:
16Introduction to National Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP) VisionAll cities & towns becometotally sanitized, healthy and liveable ,and ensure and sustain good public health and environmental outcomes for all their citizenswith a special focus on hygienic and affordable sanitation facilities for the urban poor and women.Specific goalsAwareness Generation and Behaviour ChangeAchieving Open Defecation Free CitiesAchieving Integrated City-Wide SanitationMOUD, GOI launched a NUSP to address all aspects related to urban sanitation in a comprehensive manner on November 12, 2008.
17NUSP - Implementation strategy State Sanitation StrategiesCity Sanitation PlansDetailed Project ReportsImplementationInstruments GoIAssistance to prepare DPRsPPP for key projectsFunding of projects under existing schemes:national and state level,PPP,external funding agenciesSupport clarification of institutional roles and responsibilitiesNational information, education and communication strategyNational capacity building strategyM&E: Periodic rating of citiesState Rewards SchemeCitiesStates
18CSP as a framework to formulate solutions for the illustrated problem areas Support pillarsGovernance and institutional frameworkCapacity buildingAwareness generation & behavioural changeFinancial sustainabilityTechnology optionsComponentsAccess to toiletsWaste water managementAction planStrategyRiver pollution and storm water mamnagementWater supplyBase lineSolid waste management
19Phase II: Consultation, analysis and evaluation CSP as a framework to formulate solutions for the illustrated problem areasInceptionPhase I: DiagnosisPhase II: Consultation, analysis and evaluationPhase III: Strategy developmentFinalisationCity Sanitation Planning as a participatory planning processCapacity building
20Responsibilities and tasks of municipalities related to sanitation (as per 74th Constitutional Amendment)StatePolicy formulation, regulatory role, and institutional provisionsFinancial provisionsEstablishing & administrating the specific boardsMonitoring and rewardsSectorULBsWater supplyWater supply for domestic/industrial/commercial purposeSanitation including solid wastePublic health,Sanitation conservancySWMPublic amenities including public conveniencesUrban planningUrban planning including town planningRegulation of land-use and construction of buildingsPlanning for economic and social developmentSocio-economic development and poverty alleviationSafeguarding interests of weaker sections of societySlum improvement and upgradationEnvironmental protectionProtection of the environment and promotion of ecological aspectsRegulation of slaughter houses and tanneries
21Activity: Rating of sanitation in your hometown – status of achievement of NUSP goals Rate the implementation of urban sanitation services / status of achievement of NUSP goals in your municipality marking the specific rating scoreThe scores have the following meaning:-2: item not existing-1: item requires remarkable improvement0: situation reasonable+1: good situation / performance+2: best practice example, should be sharedTransfer your individual rating to the poster
25Thank you very much Indo-German Environment Programme (IGEP) Deutsche Gesellschaft fürInternationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Sustainable Urban HabitatB-5/2, First Floor,Safdurjung Encalve, New Delhi ,Tel: /01/02