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How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values [Module 1] City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and.

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Presentation on theme: "How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values [Module 1] City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and."— Presentation transcript:

1 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values [Module 1] City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values

2 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values Module 1: Basics 2 City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values What is urban sanitation? Status and common threats of sanitation in Indian cities NUSP and former policy schemes targeting sanitation Rationale and added value of a CSP Rating of sanitation in your city

3 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values Module 1: Basics 3 Sanitation – Definition Safe management of human excreta including its safe confinement, collection, treatment, disposal and associated hygiene-related practices (NUSP).

4 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values Module 1: Activities Sanitation and public health Quiz: Are you aware of the faecal - oral transmission route Faece s Food New host P P S S Primary barrier e.g.: safe excreta disposal (toilets), protecting water sources water handling hand washing at critical times food hygiene Secondary barrier e.g: food hygiene (cover food, wash, cook vegetables before use), avoid barefoot walking,- use slippers, deal with pets & animals with care P P S Modified & developed (Dabrase, Pramod; Bank, Peter, 2012) after (1) 4 The scheme shows the faecal – oral transmission route of pathogens which can cause severe problems for public and individual health. The four ellipses in the center symbolize four possible transmission paths for pathogens. These can be controlled by various strategies making use of primary and secondary barriers. Assign the following four terms to the correct transmission paths considering the effects of possible primary and secondary barriers: Fingers, Fields, Flies, Fluids

5 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values Module 1: Activities Sanitation and public health Answer to quiz: Are you aware of the faecal - oral transmission route Faece s Fields Flies Fluid Finger s Food New host 1 gram of excreta can contain 1,00,00,000 viruses 10,00,000 bacteria 1,000 parasite cysts 100 parasite eggs Each time an adult human defecates about 250 gram of excreta P P S P S Modified & developed (Dabrase, Pramod; Bank, Peter, 2012) after (1) 5 Common diseases are: Diarrhoea, Cholera, Malaria, Intestinal worms, Hepatitis, Typhoid, Polio, Ascariasis Food sanitation and improved sanitation can reduce diarrheal morbidity – Hand washing with soap: 30% Point of use Water treatment : 39% Sanitation (toilet): 32%

6 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values Module 1: Basics 6 Impacts of inadequate sanitation Human health Global death toll: more than 2.2 million people per year, mostly children under age of 5 years 17% of total deaths among children under age of 5 In India more than 2,000 children below 5 years die every day Economy More than 2 billions of human hours lost annually Economic costs related to health care expenses = INR 212 billion/year Productivity loss due to helath problems caused by inadequate sanitation = INR 217 billion/year Gender aspects Women & girls face drudgery & serious health disorders – due to lack and dirtiness of toilets, lack of private places, long waiting time Girls lose school days, discontinue schools High rate of crimes and violence against women - when they are out for defecation Indirect impacts Contamination and eutrophication of the environment (soils, ground water, water bodies) Reduced ecosystem services Reduced value of properties, Reduced income from tourism Reduced scenic beauty

7 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values Module 1: Activities 7 Quiz: Are you aware of the economic impacts of inadequate sanitation in India?

8 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values Module 1: Activities 8 Answer to quiz: Are you aware of the economic impacts of inadequate sanitation in India?

9 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values Module 1: Activities 9 Answer to quiz: Are you aware of the economic impacts of inadequate sanitation in India?

10 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values Module 1: Basics 10 Waters to be managed by urban sanitation Grey water consists of waste water from bathroom, laundry, etc. Black water consists of waste water from toilets. Major difference between grey water and black water is its pollution load (carry diseases causing pathogens) making black water harmful to human beings Storm water runoff can be polluted / loaded with septic tank overflow, faeces, pet waste, oil, heavy metals, organic pollutants etc.

11 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values Module 1: Basics 11 Sanitation scheme Leach Pit Land Application decentralized on-site sanitation User Interface / toilet Conveyance Sewage Treatment Plant Drying Beds centralized off-site sanitation Emptying Transportation Leaching field decentralized on-site / off-site sanitation Septic Tank

12 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values Module 1: Extras 12 Sanitation scheme in future – ecological sanitation: from linear to closed loop Source: Water and Wastewater in Asia - The Imperative for New Approaches to Urban Water and Wastewater Management, ADB & Partners Conference, Manila, 12 October, 2010, Paul Reiter, Executive Director, International Water Association

13 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values Module 1: Basics 13 Status and challenges for sanitation in Indian cities Source: Centre for Science and Environment (2012): Excreta Matters – A profile oft he water and sewage situation in 71 Indian cities (Citizens Seventh Report on the State of Indias Environment) between 28-40% of the households are connected to a sewage system, whilst 34-46% rely on often uncontrolled on site disposal, This ends up in safe disposal of human excreta of only 18-52% of Indian households, whilst excreta of 48-82% of the households are disposed unsafe Source: MoUD (GTZ-ASEM Consultation workshop on City Sanitation Plans, April 16th, 2010, New Delhi):

14 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values Module 1: Basics http://www.cstindustries.com/applications/industrial/ 14 Status and challenges for sanitation in Indian cities Infra- structure Access to service Institutional Arrangeents Service usage

15 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values Module 1: Basics 15 Funding schemes before NUSP

16 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values Module 1: Basics 16 Introduction to National Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP) 1.Awareness Generation and Behaviour Change 2.Achieving Open Defecation Free Cities 3.Achieving Integrated City-Wide Sanitation All cities & towns become 1.totally sanitized, healthy and liveable, 2.and ensure and sustain good public health and environmental outcomes for all their citizens 3.with a special focus on hygienic and affordable sanitation facilities for the urban poor and women. Vision MOUD, GOI launched a NUSP to address all aspects related to urban sanitation in a comprehensive manner on November 12, 2008. Specific goals

17 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values Module 1: Basics 17 NUSP - Implementation strategy NUSP State Sanitation Strategies City Sanitation Plans Detailed Project Reports Implementation Instruments GoI Assistance to prepare DPRs PPP for key projects Funding of projects under existing schemes: national and state level, PPP, external funding agencies Support clarification of institutional roles and responsibilities National information, education and communication strategy National capacity building strategy M&E: Periodic rating of cities State Rewards Scheme Cities States

18 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values Module 1: Basics 18 CSP as a framework to formulate solutions for the illustrated problem areas Access to toilets Waste water management River pollution and storm water mamnagement Water supply Solid waste management Governance and institutional framework Capacity building Awareness generation & behavioural change Financial sustainability Technology options Components Support pillars Base line Strategy Action plan

19 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values Module 1: Basics 19 Inception Phase I: Diagnosis Phase II: Consultation, analysis and evaluation Phase III: Strategy development Finalisation Capacity building CSP as a framework to formulate solutions for the illustrated problem areas City Sanitation Planning as a participatory planning process

20 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values Module 1: Basics 20 Responsibilities and tasks of municipalities related to sanitation (as per 74 th Constitutional Amendment) SectorULBs Water supply Water supply for domestic/industrial/commercial purpose Sanitation including solid waste Public health, Sanitation conservancy SWM Public amenities including public conveniences Urban planning Urban planning including town planning Regulation of land-use and construction of buildings Planning for economic and social development Socio-economic development and poverty alleviation Safeguarding interests of weaker sections of society Slum improvement and upgradation Environmental protection Protection of the environment and promotion of ecological aspects Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries State Policy formulation, regulatory role, and institutional provisions Financial provisions Establishing & administrating the specific boards Monitoring and rewards

21 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values Module 1: Activities 21 Activity: Rating of sanitation in your hometown – status of achievement of NUSP goals Rate the implementation of urban sanitation services / status of achievement of NUSP goals in your municipality marking the specific rating score The scores have the following meaning: -2: item not existing -1: item requires remarkable improvement 0: situation reasonable +1: good situation / performance +2: best practice example, should be shared Transfer your individual rating to the poster

22 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values Module 1: Activities 22

23 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values Module 1: Activities 23

24 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values Module 1: Activities 24

25 How to use a CSP as a tool for urban development? – M1: City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values Module 1: Basics 25 Indo-German Environment Programme (IGEP) Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Sustainable Urban Habitat B-5/2, First Floor, Safdurjung Encalve, New Delhi-110029, Tel: +91-11-49495300/01/02 Thank you very much


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