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LOGO Kwangho Lee Korean Elementary School Teachers’ Mathematical Textbook Use Korea National University of Education

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LOGO The Content Click To Edit Title Style

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Introduction National curriculum –Elementary school mathematics 2007 reformed curriculum textbooks –Reflect the curriculum –Appropriate for curriculum-centered system –Learner centered variety and high quality

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Introduction Have developed high quality textbooks –2009: 1,2,7,10 grades –2010: 3,4,8,11 grades –2011: 5,6,9,12 grades

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Why bother? Making good textbooks ≠ Effective use of the textbook Two main factors for implementing the curriculum –Teacher –Textbooks (Textbook + Workbook) Limited research on effective use of mathematical textbooks

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So what? Need to –Investigate elementary school teachers’ awareness about textbooks –Study teachers’ textbook use –Dicuss about effective textbook use

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Research Questions What is the elementary school teachers’ awareness of mathematics textbooks? How they use the textbooks? What is the specific ways of the effective textbook use?

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Theoretical Background Perspectives on textbook –Opened perspective Textbook is a one of the various resources –Closed perspective Textbook contents have no error and absolute authority

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Theoretical Background Perspectives on textbook –Support teacher profession Supplemental resources for teachers’ knowlege and experience Important method for realizing educational reform movement –Constrain teacher profession Constrain teacher decision making and students’ learning chances

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The fundamental direction of making mathematical textbooks Fundamental DirectionContents Reflect curriculum substantially Reflect for desired human images. Reflect for each subject curriculum Adjust curriculum centered school education Main educational resources for fulfilling curriculum Teaching and learning process centered textbooks Classroom friendly textbooks teachers can participate Student centered high quality textbooks Content raising thinking skills, inquiry, and creativity Easily understood, enjoyably and useful

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Fundamental direction for making mathematics textbook The Direction ▪ The textbook for reflecting curriculum ▪ Enjoyable textbook from everyday life phenomenon ▪ Easily understanding contents ▪ Self-directed learning ▪ Develop reasoning, communication, problem solving ▪ Understand worth of mathematics ▪ Positive attitude to mathematics ▪ Proper edition, design adjusting grade level

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Structional system of Textbook Unit

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The content (Example 3 rd ) ① Unit name ② Symbolic illustration for the unit content

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The content (Example 3 rd ) ③ Learning theme: Student centered description ④ Open mind: Showing right situation for Learning theme, think the situation mainly and discuss about what they think ⑤ Activity: Realize the learning theme. Operational, intuitive and abstract activities are showed and discuss about each cases

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The content (Example 3 rd ) ⑥ Page number relate to workbook ⑦ Promise: Mathematically define learning content ⑧ Check and strengthen: students draw a picture or make a sentence with promised sign and vocabulary ⑨ Drill and practice: Problems to drill and practice all learned content

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The content (Example 3 rd ) ⑩ Solve problems: Assess the learned content of a unit showing problems reflected the each lesson content

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The content (Example 3 rd ) ⑪ Inquiry activity: Introduce the methods which is different from the learning content in the unit

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The content (Example 3 rd ) ⑫ Materials: the necessary materials for learning are added on the appendix with page number related with mathematics textbook

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Fundamental direction for making mathematics workbook The Direction ▪ Reflect curriculum well ▪ Use the knowledge and skills learned through textbook ▪ Easily understand contents, self-directed learning ▪ Teach and learn based on students' abilities and levels ▪ Develop reasoning, communication, problem solving ▪ Understand the worth of mathematics, positive attitude

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Structional system of Textbook Unit

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The content (Example 3 rd ) ① The unit name ② The illustration for entering unit: Symbolic cartoon for the unit content

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The content (Example 3 rd ) ③ Before study the each unit 'preparation for learning' is given about 2 pages to check the prior knowledge for learning the unit

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The content (Example 3 rd ) ④ Learning theme: Same with textbook ⑤ Checking: Learning content which was learned from textbook is organized and summarized ⑥ Basic problems: Very basic problems which can be solved intuitively ⑦ Practice the basic: Problems included basic process

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The content (Example 3 rd ) ⑧ The page number relate to the textbook ⑨ Cultivate ability: the problems correspond to more difficult level

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The content (Example 3 rd ) ⑩ Problem solving: Problems are given in each unit to develop problem solving ability

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The content (Example 3 rd ) ⑪ Story yard: History of mathematics or similar story which is adjust to the unit content and can motivate students

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The content (Example 3 rd ) ⑫ Play yard: To raise effective learning with playing, fun games are presented

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The content (Example 3 rd ) ⑬ Materials: the necessary materials for learning are added on the appendix

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Design & Methodology Research design –Sampled teachers –Surveyed to conjecture the teachers' disposition and the their view of textbook use –Interviewed teachers to get insight about their views.

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Design & Methodology Samples –Use snowball effect –278 elementary school teachers –Group interviewed with 6 teachers Background of the samples –Table 5

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Design & Methodology Data collection –Survey content Table 6: function, contribution, using rate, using time, using ways, restructuring, assisting materials, referring resources, meaning of effective use, ideas about effective use –Group interview Teachers’ description and discussion

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Results Teacher awareness about the textbooks –Function

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Results Teacher awareness about the textbooks –Function

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Results Constribution on mathematics lessons

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Teachers’ textbook use

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Textbook use rate of items

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Workbook use rate of items

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Using time of the textbooks

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Way of using the textbook

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Way of using the workbook

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Teaching and learning method when teachers use the textooks

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Textbook reconstruct and frequency

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The way of textbook reconstruct

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Textbook reconstructing reason

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The sources of mathematical knowledge for effective use of the textbook

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The teachers’ opinion about the meaning of effective textbook use Item Response (%) Examples of the representative response Textbook centered teaching but teacher need to reconstruct 46 (28.4) ▪ Depends on the stduetns’ level of understanding and attention, both the order and content should be reconstructd but students need to learn all the textbook content. Extract core elements and use it without relying on the textbook 13 (8.0) ▪ Considering classroom environment and students’ learning level, extract least element, reconstruct and use it. ▪ Do not rely on the textbook content entirely and use it extracting mathematical element in various situation. Use it to understand learning questions and basic concepts and principles 13 (8.0) ▪ Use it as a teaching and learning materials for students to understand mathematical concepts, principles and problem solving ▪ Use it for identifying learning questions and fundamental concepts and principles

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The teachers’ effective use of textbook Item Strongly agree AgreeNeitherDisagree Strongly disagree No response Total Response (%) 30 (10.8) 122 (43.9) 117 (42.1) 4 (1.4) 0 (0.0) 5 (1.8) 278 (100.0)

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Yoon’s textbook use One of the teaching materials Reconstructs the textbook –prepare the lessons for opening –achieve specific purposes –Reach to the learning objectives ‘Doing promise’ –confirm the definition of mathematical concepts

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Han’s workbook use Teach and Learn Each Other and Develop their Abilities Use for graded(level based) learning Use for performance assessment

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Conclusion Make the textbook more clearly on directing inquiry process and learning content The textbook authors should effort to reflect the mathematical creativity in the textbooks. The workbook is used for homework so it should be constructed by considering self- directed learning and graded learning

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Conclusion The teachers need to reconstruct the textbook to teach. The intension of the making textbooks should be announced to the teachers The workbook should be able to support all the ways of using strategies.

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Comment and questions?

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