Job Design is concerned with the way the elements in a job are organized.
J. R. Hackman and G. Oldham proposes the job characteristics model where any job can be described in terms of five core job dimensions: Skill Variety: the degree to which a job requires a number of different activities so the worker can use a number of different skills. Task Identity: The degree to which a job requires of a whole and identifiable piece of work (for example completing the whole task from start to end like finishing a chair not just its legs) Task Significance: The degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people. Autonomy: The degree to which a job provides substantial freedom and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out. Feedback: The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by a job results in the individual obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance.
Jobs can be redesigned in order to become more motivating through: Job Enlargement: Increasing the number and variety of tasks that an individual performs. It results in jobs with more diversity. Job Rotation: The periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another so as to keep being challenged. Job Enrichment: The vertical expansion of jobs, which increases the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution and evaluation of the work.
A performance appraisal is the process of assessing workers performance in comparison to certain predetermined organizational standards. Appraisals not only help employees understand how they are doing but they also help the worker's supervisor along with the organization as a whole.
The objectives of job performance are to (a) allocate recourses (b) motivate and reward employees (c) give feedback (d) maintain fair relationships within groups (e) coach and develop employees (f) comply with regulations.
Performance appraisal is a formal system of measuring, evaluating, and influencing an employee’s job-related attributes, behaviors and outcomes. In some organization's appraisal results may be used to determine relative rewards in the firm -- who should get merit pay increases, bonuses, or promotions. Similarly, appraisal results can be used to identify the poorer performers who may require some form of counseling, demotion, dismissal or decreases in pay.
One of the most motivating factors for the employees, in the Performance appraisal processes is to receive a fair an accurate assessment of their performance. Inaccurate evaluation is one reason because of which most employees dread going through performance appraisals. An employee always expects his appraiser to recognize and appreciate his achievements, support him to overcome the problems and failures. Performance appraisal
Employees, who receive both accuracy and a pay increase during their performance review, are likely to be the most motivated. Therefore, performance appraisal (review and its consequence in the form of compensation adjustments) has the potential of motivating employees and increasing their job satisfaction.
Goal setting in broad terms is the process of deciding on something you want, planning how to get it, and then working towards the objective.
This theory states that goal setting is essentially linked to task performance. It states that specific and challenging goals along with appropriate feedback contribute to higher and better task performance.
In simple words, goals indicate and give direction to an employee about what needs to be done and how much efforts are required to be put in. The important features of goal-setting theory are as follows: The willingness to work towards attainment of goal is main source of job motivation. Clear, particular and difficult goals are greater motivating factors than easy, general and vague goals.
Specific and clear goals lead to greater output and better performance. Goals should be realistic and challenging. This gives an individual a feeling of pride and triumph when he attains them, and sets him up for attainment of next goal. Better and appropriate feedback of results directs the employee behavior and contributes to higher performance than absence of feedback.
Employees’ participation in goal is not always desirable. Participation of setting goal, however, makes goal more acceptable and leads to more involvement.