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6. Protocol Standardization for IoT 1.  TCP/IP  HTML and HTTP  The difference between the Internet and the World Wide Web The Internet is the term.

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Presentation on theme: "6. Protocol Standardization for IoT 1.  TCP/IP  HTML and HTTP  The difference between the Internet and the World Wide Web The Internet is the term."— Presentation transcript:

1 6. Protocol Standardization for IoT 1

2  TCP/IP  HTML and HTTP  The difference between the Internet and the World Wide Web The Internet is the term used to identify the massive interconnection of computer networks around the world. It refers to the physical connection of the paths between two or more computers. 6. Protocol Standardization for IoT2 6.1 Web of Things vs. Internet of Things

3  The World Wide Web is the general name for accessing the Internet via HTTP, thus www.anything.something.  The Internet is the large container, and the web is a part within the container.  The key to make the Internet of Things (IoT) takes off is the Web of Things (WoT) – the killer applications’ platform or base of the IoT.  The WoT is the next logical step in this IoT evolution toward global networks of sensors and actuators, enabling new applications and providing new opportunities. 6. Protocol Standardization for IoT3 World Wide Web Email FTP Chat P2P IM Gopher Telnet The Internet

4  The WoT explores the layer on top of connectivity with things and addresses issues such as fast prototyping, data integration, and interaction with objects.  The WoT is a version where things become seamlessly integrated into the web.  There are also many other WoT applications around the world. Some of the WoT applications are listed here. Arduino Japan Geiger Map Nanode The National Weather Study Project AgSphere 6. Protocol Standardization for IoT4

5 6.1.1 Two Pillars of the Web  The application server became the foundation that helped build widely spreading web-based applications.  An application server acts as a set of components accessible to the software developer through an API defined by the middleware itself.  The application server is based on the three-tiered (Fig. 6.2) or multi- tiered software architecture.  As the two pillars for web applications and the Internet revolution, the protocols (HTML)/HTTP/URL and the software will continue to be the two pillars of play an important role in building WoT applications. 6. Protocol Standardization for IoT5

6  The current status of IoT standardization Fragmented architectures, no coherent unifying concepts, solutions exist only for application silos. No holistic approach to implement the IoT has yet been proposed. Many island solutions do exist (RFID, sensor nets, etc.) Little cross-sector reuse of technology and exchange of knowledge.  The key objectives of the IoT-A consortium are as follows: Create the architectural foundations of an interoperable Internet of Things as a key dimension of the larger future Internet. Architectural reference model together with an initial set of key building blocks: Not reinventing the wheel but federating already existing technologies Demonstrating the applicability in a set of use cases Removing the barriers of deployment and wide-scale acceptance of the IoT by establishing a strongly involved stakeholder group Federating heterogeneous IoT technologies into an interoperable IoT fabric  Working groups of IoT standards (Fig. 6.6)  The emergency application space for smart objects require scalable and interoperable communication mechanisms that support future innovation as the application space grows. 6. Protocol Standardization for IoT6 6.2 IoT Protocol Standardization Efforts

7  A smart object is defined by IPSO (Internet Protocol Smart Object) as An intelligent (RFID) tag A Sensor An actuator An embedded device Any combination of the above features to form a more complex entity 6. Protocol Standardization for IoT7

8 8 6.2.1 M2M and WSN Protocol  A broad horizontal standard is a key requirement for the M2M industry to move from its current state of applications existing in isolated silos based on vertical market or underlying technology to a truly interconnected IoT.  There are a number of standardization bodies in the field of WSNs. IEEE  the physical and MAC layers IETF  layers or above

9 6.2.2 SCADA and RFID Protocols  The Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control (OPC) Foundation is an industry consortium that creates and maintains standards for open connectivity of industrial automation devices and systems  The OPC standards specify the communication of industrial process data, alarms and events, historical data and batch process data between sensors, instruments, controllers, software systems, and notification devices. 6. Protocol Standardization for IoT9

10  The smart cards with contactless interfaces (RFID is a subset) are becoming increasingly popular for payment and ticketing applications.  The standard for contactless smart card communications is ISO/IEC 14443. 6. Protocol Standardization for IoT10

11 6.2.3 Issues with IoT Standardization  Standardization is like a double-edged sword: critical to market development, but it may threaten innovation and inhibit change when standards are accepted by the market.  The following two issues for the IoT standardization in particular and the ICT standardization in general may never have answers: ICT standardization is a highly decentralized activity. How can the individual activities of the network of extremely heterogeneous standards-setting bodies be coordinated? It will become essential to allow all interested shake-holders to participate in the standardization process toward the IoT and to voice their respective requirements and concerns. How can this be achieved> 6. Protocol Standardization for IoT11

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