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Individuals Matter: Wangari Maathari and Kenya’s Green Belt Movement Green Belt Movement: 1977-today Self-help group of women in Kenya Success of tree.

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Presentation on theme: "Individuals Matter: Wangari Maathari and Kenya’s Green Belt Movement Green Belt Movement: 1977-today Self-help group of women in Kenya Success of tree."— Presentation transcript:

1 Individuals Matter: Wangari Maathari and Kenya’s Green Belt Movement Green Belt Movement: 1977-today Self-help group of women in Kenya Success of tree planting 50,000 members planted 40 million trees Women are paid for each tree that survives Slows soil erosion Shade and beauty Combats global warming Nobel Peace Prize: 2004

2 LIVING IN THE ENVIRONMENT 17 TH MILLER/SPOOLMAN Chapter 10 Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: The Ecosystem Approach

3 10-1 What Are the Major Threats to Forest Ecosystems? Concept 10-1A Forest ecosystems provide ecological services far greater in value than the value of raw materials obtained from forests. Concept 10-1B Unsustainable cutting and burning of forests, along with diseases and insects, all made worse by projected climate change, are the chief threats to forest ecosystems.

4 Forests Vary in Their Make-Up, Age, and Origins Old-growth or primary forest (36%) Uncut, or not disturbed for several hundred years Reservoirs of biodiversity Russia, Canada, Brazil, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea Second-growth forest (60%) Secondary ecological succession Tree plantation, (aka-tree farm, commercial forest) (4%) May supply most industrial wood in the future Clear-cut, then replanted in a regular cycle Contain only 1 or 2 tree species, all the same age

5 Tree Plantations Advantages May help conserve remaining old-growth and secondary growth forests Produce wood at fast rates & increase owner profits Could Supply most of the wood for industrial purposes Disadvantages Much less bio-diverse and thus, less sustainable Repeated cutting depletes top-soil of nutrients  May lead to irreversible hindrance of forest regrowth Produces GMO tree species that may spread to old- and second-growth forests 60% of tree plantations found in (1)China(3)U.S (5)Canada (2)India(4)Russia (6)Sweden

6 Natural Capital: An Old-Growth Forest Fig. 10-2, p. 219

7 Rotation Cycle of Cutting and Regrowth of a Monoculture Tree Plantation Fig. 10-3, p. 219

8 Fig. 10-3a, p. 219 25 yrs Weak trees removed Clear cut 30 yrs Years of growth 15 yrs Seedlings planted 5 yrs10 yrs

9 Forests Provide Important Ecological Services Support energy flow and chemical cycling Reduce soil erosion Absorb and release water Purify water and air Influence local and regional climate Remove carbon from air, supply atmospheric oxygen Habitats for about 2/3 of terrestrial species

10 Forests Provide Important Economic Services Wood for fuel Lumber Pulp to make paper Mining Livestock grazing Recreation Employment Medicinal extractions

11 Natural Capital: Major Ecological and Economic Services Provided by Forests Fig. 10-4, p. 220

12 Forests Support energy fl ow and chemical cycling Fuelwood Ecological ServicesEconomic Services Natural Capital Reduce soil erosion Lumber Absorb and release water Pulp to make paper Purify water and air Mining In fl uence local and regional climate Livestock grazing Store atmospheric carbon Recreation Provide numerous wildlife habitats Jobs

13 Science Focus: Putting a Price Tag on Nature’s Ecological Services Forests valued for ecological services Nutrient cycling Climate regulation Erosion control Waste treatment Recreation Raw materials Forests provide $4.7 trillion per year – hundreds of times their economic value for lumber & paper use.

14 Estimated Annual Global Economic Values of Ecological Services Provided by Forests Fig. 10-A, p. 221

15 350 400 300 250 200 150 Worth (billions of dollars) 100 50 Nutrient cycling Climate regulation Waste treatment 0 Erosion control Ecological service RecreationRaw materials

16 Unsustainable Logging is a Major Threat to Forest Ecosystems Logging is one of the world’s major industries >2/3 wood removed from forests used for biofuel (cooking, heating) Remainder used for industrial wood (paper, lumber) Most detrimental effects of logging: Increased erosion Sediment runoff into waterways Habitat fragmentation Building roads for access of timber removal Loss of biodiversity

17 Unsustainable Logging is a Major Threat to Forest Ecosystems Creating logging roads is first step to harvesting timber This causes habitat fragmentation that makes forests susceptible to: Invasion by Nonnative pests Disease Wildlife species Now-Granted access to Miners Ranchers, famers Hunters Off-road vehicles

18 Fig. 10-5a, p. 221 New highway Old growth

19 Fig. 10-5b, p. 221 Cleared plots for grazing Highway Cleared plots for agriculture

20 Major tree harvesting methods *Selective cutting- only intermediate-aged or old trees are cut singly or in small groups Clear-cutting- removal of all trees in an area *Strip cutting- variation of clear cutting; Clear-cuts a strip along the contour of the land within a narrow corridor Allows natural regeneration within a few years *** more sustainable practice!

21 New highway Old growth Cleared plots for agriculture Highway Cleared plots for grazing Stepped Art Fig. 10-5, p. 221 Natural Capital Degradation: Building Roads into Previously Inaccessible Forests

22 Major Tree Harvesting Methods Fig. 10-6, p. 222

23 Fig. 10-6a, p. 222 (a) Selective cutting Clear stream

24 Fig. 10-6b, p. 222 (b) Clear-cutting Muddy stream

25 Fig. 10-6c, p. 222 (c) Strip cutting Uncut Cut 1 year ago Dirt road Cut 3–10 years ago Uncut Clear stream

26 Clear-Cut Logging in Washington State Fig. 10-7, p. 222

27 Trade-offs: Advantages and Disadvantages of Clear-Cutting Forests Fig. 10-8, p. 223

28 Trade-Offs Clear-Cutting Forests AdvantagesDisadvantages Higher timber yields Reduces biodiversity Destroys and fragments wildlife habitats Maximum profits in shortest time Can reforest with fast-growing trees Increases water pollution, fl ooding, and erosion on steep slopes Good for tree species needing full or moderate sunlight Eliminates most recreational value

29 Major Unsustainable Logging Countries Africa and S.E Asia Largest practice of illegal, unsustainable logging 37 out of the 41 national parks in Kenya ravaged from logging

30 Fires Can Threaten Forest Ecosystems Surface fires- Burn only seeds, small trees, undergrowth and leaf litter, spare mature trees Benefits Allow most wild life to escape Burn away flammable ground material, prevents destructive fires Free tied-up mineral nutrients from decomposing litter Control tree disease Release seeds from cones, stimulate new germination Many species depend on this

31 Fires Can Threaten Forest Ecosystems Crown Fires- Extremely hot: burns whole trees Kill wildlife Dramatic habitat loss Increase soil erosion Usually never pre-exposed to surface fires Accumulate dead, flammable wood, leaves, and ground litter Fires not a major long term threat Short term threat Especially intentional burns to clear forests Increase atmospheric CO2 and pollutants

32 Surface and Crown Fires Fig. 10-9, p. 223

33 Prescribed Burns

34 Insects and Climate Change Can Threaten Forest Ecosystems Introduction of foreign diseases and insects Accidental Deliberate *List some ways to reduce harmful impacts of tree diseases and insect pests (page 224) Global warming Rising temperatures Trees more susceptible to diseases and pests Drier forests: more fires More greenhouse gases

35 Nonnative Insect Species and Disease Organisms in U.S. Forests Figure 10, Supplement 8

36 We Have Cut Down Almost Half of the World’s Forests Deforestation- temporary or permanent removal of forests WRI: 46% reduction of total forest cover in past 8,000 years Forest losses most concentrated in less-developed countries Tropical forests Especially in Latin America, Indonesia, and Africa Boreal forests Especially in Alaska, Canada, Scandinavia, and Russia Encouraging news Net total forest cover has stayed the same or increased in U.S. and a few other countries between 2000 and 2007

37 Natural Capital Degradation: Harmful Environmental Effects of Deforestation Fig. 10-12, p. 226

38 Case Study: Many Cleared Forests in the United States Have Grown Back Forests of the eastern United States decimated between 1620 and 1920 Grown back naturally through secondary ecological succession in the eastern states Bad news: Since 1960, increasing area of old growth and second growth forests cut & replaced with biologically simplified tree plantation Biologically simplified tree plantations reduce biodiversity and deplete nutrients from soil

39 Natural Capital Degradation Deforestation has consequences: 1.Decreased soil fertility from erosion 2.Runoff of eroded soil into aquatic environment 3.Premature extinction of species with specialized niches 4.Loss of habitat for native species and migratory species 5.Regional climate change from extensive clearing 6.release,/non-removal of CO2 in atmosphere 7.Acceleration of flooding

40 Tropical Forests are Disappearing Rapidly Majority of loss since 1950 Africa, Southeast Asia, South America 98% will be gone by 2022 Role of deforestation in species’ extinction Secondary forest can grow back in 15-20 years Yet lack original biodiversity

41 Natural Capital Degradation: Extreme Tropical Deforestation in Thailand Fig. 10-11, p. 226

42 Species Diversity in Tropical Forests Fig. 10-13, p. 227

43 Causes of Tropical Deforestation Are Varied and Complex Population growth Poverty of subsistence farmers Ranching Lumber Plantation farms: oil palm Begins with building of roads Many forests burned Can tilt tropical forest to tropical savanna

44 Fig. 10-14, p. 228 Natural Capital Degradation Major Causes of the Destruction and Degradation of Tropical Forests Basic/Underlying CausesSecondary/Direct Causes Not valuing ecological services Roads Cattle ranching Crop and timber exports Fires Logging Government policies Settler farming Tree plantations Poverty Cash crops Population growth Cattle ranching Tree plantations Logging Cash crops Settler farming Fires Roads

45 Natural Capital Degradation: Large Areas of Brazil’s Amazon Basin Are Burned Fig. 10-15, p. 228

46 Human effects on Forests

47 10-2 How Should We Manage and Sustain Forests? Concept 10-2 We can sustain forests by emphasizing the economic value of their ecological services, removing government subsidies that hasten their destruction, protecting old-growth forests, harvesting trees no faster than they are replenished, and planting trees.

48 Solution: Sustainable Forestry Fig. 10-16, p. 230 Ways to shift to sustainable forestry: Rid of government subsidies and tax breaks that encourage degradation/ deforestation Massive tree planting programs (i.e. the Green Belt movement)

49 Science Focus: Certifying Sustainably Grown Timber Collins Pine Owns and manages protective timberland NE California – doesn’t take more than is sustainable Forest Stewardship Council Nonprofit Developed list of environmentally sound practices Certifies timber and products 2009: 5% of world’s forest have certified to FSC standards Also certifies manufacturers of wood products

50 We Can Improve the Management of Forest Fires The Smokey Bear educational campaign Forest fire prevention program Gave all forest fires a negative public view We NEED fires!!! Why? Refer to previous slides How can we reduce fire-related harm to forests? Prescribed fires Allow fires on public lands to burn Protect structures in fire-prone areas Thin forests in fire-prone areas

51 We Can Reduce the Demand for Harvested Trees Improve the efficiency of wood use 60% of U.S. wood use is wasted Make tree-free paper Kenaf Hemp Non-tree fiber sources yield more pulp per area of land than tree farms AN require fewer pesticides

52 Using Kenaf for Paper Pulp 1987 study- using kenaf to make newspaper Brighter, stronger pages Less environmental impact 20% less energy used than producing from tree fibers We could essentially eliminate the need to use trees for paper pulp  so what’s stopping us? Timber companies successful lobbying for subsidies($$$) No lobbying efforts or subsidies for using kenaf substitute Timber companies lobby AGAINST kanaf subsidies

53 Recycling Paper Indirect benefits: Reduces deforestation rate decreases atmospheric carbon by having more tree’s sequestering it Reduces the need for habitat fragmentation due to harvesting methods Saves energy in paper production Reduces pollution Preservation of trees helps sustain biodiversity Disadvantages Uses fossil fuels during production Paper quality reduced Harmful chemical byproducts from recycling process Removal of ink gets into water supply (copper, lead, zinc, etc) Creation of solid waste Encourages consumption

54 Case Study: Deforestation and the Fuelwood Crisis One half of world wood harvest is for fuel Possible solutions Establish small plantations of fast- growing fuelwood trees and shrubs Burn wood more efficiently Solar or wind-generated electricity Burn garden waste Bagasse- left over sugar cane processing Haiti: ecological disaster

55 Governments and Individuals Can Act to Reduce Tropical Deforestation Reduce fuelwood demand Practice small-scale sustainable agriculture and forestry in tropical forest Government protection Example: Brazil law sets aside 57% of tropical rainforest for indigenous people Law is difficult to enforce Debt-for-nature swaps/conservation concessions Plant trees Buy certified lumber and wood products

56 Fig. 10-19, p. 233 Solutions Sustaining Tropical Forests PreventionRestoration Protect the most diverse and endangered areas Encourage regrowth through secondary succession Educate settlers about sustainable agriculture and forestry Subsidize only sustainable forest use Rehabilitate degraded areas Protect forests through debt-for-nature swaps and conservation concessions Certify sustainably grown timber Concentrate farming and ranching in already- cleared areas Reduce poverty Slow population growth

57 10-3 How Should We Manage and Sustain Grasslands? Concept 10-3 We can sustain the productivity of grasslands by controlling the number and distribution of grazing livestock, and by restoring degraded grasslands.

58 Some Rangelands Are Overgrazed Important ecological services of grasslands Soil formation Erosion control Nutrient cycling Storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide in biomass Maintenance of diversity Grazing is when large herbivorous species feed on grasslands Grass grows from the base So grazing is renewable as long as only upper half of grass is eaten

59 Some Rangelands Are Overgrazed Rangelands Unfenced grasslands in temperate and tropical climates provide forage for animals (grass- eating) Provide browsing for animals (shrub eating) Pastures Managed grasslands and fences meadows used for grazing livestock

60 Some Rangelands are Overgrazed Overgrazing of rangelands Reduces grass cover Leads to erosion of soil by water and wind Soil becomes compacted Enhances invasion of plant species that cattle won’t eat 200 years ago, grasslands covered 50% of S.W US Now- only covers 20% Malpai Borderlands Arizona-New Mexico border Management success story- recovered from overgrazing

61 Natural Capital Degradation: Overgrazed and Lightly Grazed Rangeland Fig. 10-20, p. 234

62 We Can Manage Rangelands More Sustainably Rotational grazing- Cattle are confined by portable fencing to one area for a short time (1-2 days) then moved to another area Riparian Zones Lush vegetation-lined areas of a river Cattle tend to aggregate here Suppress growth of invasive species Herbicides Mechanical removal Controlled burning Controlled short-term trampling (Cheaper) More Expensive method, less widely used

63 We Can Manage Rangelands More Sustainably (2) Replant barren areas Apply fertilizer Reduce soil erosion

64 Natural Capital Restoration: San Pedro River in Arizona Fig. 10-21, p. 235

65 Case Study: Grazing and Urban Development the American West American southwest population surge since 1980 Land trust groups: conservation easements Deed restrictions that bar future owners from developing the land Reduce the harmful environmental impact of herds Rotate cattle away from riparian areas Use less fertilizers and pesticides Operate ranch more economically and sustainably

66 Sustainable Acts to Know Taylor Grazing Act (1943) signed by President Roosevelt, was intended to "stop injury to the public grazing lands [excluding Alaska] by preventing overgrazing and soil deterioration; to provide for their orderly use, improvement, and development; [and] to stabilize the livestock industry dependent upon the public range" (USDI 1988). This Act was pre-empted by the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA). Lacey Act (1900) Originally passed in 1900, the U.S. Lacey Act makes it a federal crime to poach game in one state with the purpose of selling the bounty in another. Introduced in the House of Representatives by Iowa Congressman John Lacey over a century ago, the Lacey Act has been revised several times turning it into one of the broadest and most comprehensive policies in the federal arsenal designed to combat wildlife crime. Wilderness Act (1964) To protect large expanses of pristine land

67 10-4 How Should We Manage and Sustain Parks and Natural Reserves? Concept 10-4 Sustaining biodiversity will require more effective protection of existing parks and nature reserves, as well as the protection of much more of the earth’s remaining undisturbed land area.

68 National Parks Face Many Environmental Threats Worldwide: 1100 major national parks Parks in developing countries Greatest biodiversity 1% protected against Illegal animal poaching Illegal logging and mining Why do you think it’s difficult to control illegal park degradation in less developed countries? Too little money Too few personnel

69 Case Study: Stresses on U.S. Public Parks 58 Major national parks in the U.S. Biggest problem may be popularity Noise Congestion Pollution Damage or destruction to vegetation and wildlife Off-roading vehicles, dirt-bikes, jet skis, snow mobiles

70 Case Study: Stresses on U.S. Public Parks (2) Damage from nonnative species Boars and mountain goats Introduced plants, insects, worms Native species sometimes killed or removed Threatened islands of biodiversity Air pollution Mining Logging Livestock grazing Need billions $$ in trail and infrastructure repairs Urban development Coal-fired power plants Water diversion

71 Grand Teton National Park Fig. 10-22, p. 237

72 Natural Capital Degradation: Damage From Off-Road Vehicles Fig. 10-23, p. 237

73 Solutions: National Parks Fig. 10-24, p. 239

74 Science Focus: Reintroducing the Gray Wolf to Yellowstone National Park Keystone species 1995: reintroduced; 2009: 116 wolves in park Prey on elk and push them to a higher elevation Regrowth of aspen, cottonwoods, and willows More beaver dams, more wetlands, more aspens Reduced the number of coyotes Fewer attacks on cattle More smaller mammals

75 Natural Capital Restoration: Gray Wolf Fig. 10-B, p. 238

76 Nature Reserves Occupy Only a Small Part of the Earth’s Land Currently less than 13% is protected Only 5% strictly protected Conservationists’goal: protect 20% We need cooperation between government and private groups and concerned individuals Conservation efforts: Nature Conservancy- Land trust groups Private, non-profit

77 Silver Creek Nature Conservancy Preserve near Sun Valley, Idaho Fig. 10-25, p. 240

78 Designing and Connecting Nature Reserves Large versus small reserves Amazon- large is better Some habitats benefit from well-placed medium sized The buffer zone concept Areas between strictly protected inner core and human-inhabited areas United Nations: 553 biosphere reserves in 107 countries Allows sustainable resource use by locals

79 Habitat Corridors A connection pathway between segmented wildlife habitats separate by human-inhabited areas (i.e. roads, communities, etc) Advantages Allows for migration For species that need to move when conditions in an area deteriorate Need seasonal migration for food Increase biodiversity of birds, insects, small mammals and plants Disadvantages May also allow movement of: Pest species Fire Invasive species between reserves Increase exposure to: Natural predators, hunters, pollution Very costly

80 Case Study: Costa Rica—A Global Conservation Leader 1963–1983: cleared much of the forest 1986–2006: forests grew from 26% to 51% Goal: net carbon dioxide emissions to zero by 2021 ¼ of land in nature reserves and natural parks – global leader 8 zoned megareserves- protected innor core surrounded by 2 buffer zones Earns $1 billion per year in tourism

81 Case Study: Costa Rica—A Global Conservation Leader How do they maintain their sustainability? Eliminated subsidies for rangeland conversion They even pay landowners to maintain/restore tree cover Mass tree planting 14 million between 2007-2008 Plans for more

82 Solutions: Costa Rica: Parks and Reserves—Eight Megareserves Fig. 10-26, p. 241

83 Nicaragua Caribbean Sea Costa Rica Panama Pacific Ocean National parkland Buffer zone

84 Protecting Wilderness Is an Important Way to Preserve Biodiversity Wilderness Land officially designated as having no serious disturbance from human activities Wilderness Act of 1964 President Teddy Roosevelt- “Leave it as it is. You cannot improve it” Controversial- opponents contend their economic value should not be restricted from use Biologists argue we need to protect it for long term ecological insurance policy They are centers for evolution in response to inevitable environmental change

85 Case Study: Controversy over Wilderness Protection in the United States Wilderness Act of 1964 Protect undeveloped lands 2% of lower 48 protected, mostly in West ¾ of protected US Wilderness is in Alaska 10-fold increase of protected area from 1970 to 2010 2009 2 million more acres get wilderness protection 50% increase in length of wild and scenic rivers

86 10-5 What is the Ecosystem Approach to Sustaining Biodiversity? Concept 10-5 We can help sustain biodiversity by identifying and protecting severely threatened areas (biodiversity hotspots), restoring damaged ecosystems (using restoration ecology), and sharing with other species much of the land we dominate (using reconciliation ecology).

87 We Can Use a Four-Point Strategy to Protect Ecosystems Ecosystem Approach: Protect and sustain ecosystems to maintain biodiversity within them by protecting habitats and eco-services -Many biologists believe its better to focus on this rather than saving individual species Follows a four point plan: 1.Map global ecosystems; identify and take inventory of species 2.Locate and protect most endangered ecosystems and species Emphasis on plant biodiversity and eco-services 3.Restore degraded ecosystems 4.Development must be biodiversity-friendly Implement tax-breaks and write offs for financial incentives Are new laws needed?

88 Ecosystem Approaches 1.Protect biodiversity hot spots 2.Protect ecosystem services 3.Rehabilitate and restore damaged ecosystems

89 Protecting Global Biodiversity Hot Spots Is an Urgent Priority 34 biodiversity hot spots Biodiversity hotspot: areas rich in endemic plant species and are in danger of extinction Cover 2% of earth’s surface- but 50% of flowering plant species and 42% of terrestrial vertebrates Also home to 1.2 billion people Drawbacks of this approach May not be rich in animal diversity People may be displaced and/or lose access to important resources

90 Endangered Natural Capital: 34 Biodiversity Hotspots Fig. 10-27, p. 243 otspots-video_5d688b9a6.html

91 Endangered Natural Capital: Biodiversity Hotspots in the U.S. Figure 27, Supplement 8

92 Protecting Ecosystem Services Is Also an Urgent Priority U.N. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: 2005 Identify key ecosystem services Human activities degrade or overuse 60% of the earth’s natural services Identify highly stressed life raft ecosystems High poverty levels Highly depended upon Ecosystem services degraded Foster cooperation among residents, government and scientists to protect people and biodiversity

93 We Can Rehabilitate and Restore Ecosystems That We Have Damaged Ecological restoration: process of repairing damage caused by humans to the biodiversity and dynamics of natural ecosystems Study how natural ecosystems recover 1.Restoration- returning degraded habitat to conditions of its natural state 2.Rehabilitation- turning ecosystem into functional or useful system without restoration (ex. Remove pollutants) 3.Replacement- replacing degraded ecosystem with another type of ecosystem (i.e- degraded forest into tree plantation) 4.Creating artificial ecosystems- artificial wetlands to reduce flooding or treat sewage

94 We Can Rehabilitate and Restore Ecosystems That We Have Damaged How to carry out most forms of ecological restoration and rehabilitation 1.Identify what caused the degradation 2.Stop the abuse/eliminate causes 3.Reintroduce species, if possible 4.Protect from further degradation

95 Science Focus: Ecological Restoration of a Tropical Dry Forest in Costa Rica Guanacaste National Park restoration project Relinked to adjacent rain forest Bring in cattle and horses – aid in seed dispersal Local residents – actively involved

96 Will Restoration Encourage Further Destruction? Preventing ecosystem damage is cheaper than restoration About 5% of the earth’s land is preserved from the effects of human activities

97 We Can Share Areas We Dominate With Other Species Reconciliation ecology Invent and maintain habitats for species diversity where people live, work, and play Aka- work together with nature Community-based conservation Belize and the black howler monkeys Protect vital insect pollinators

98 Case Study: The Blackfoot Challenge— Reconciliation Ecology in Action 1970s: Blackfoot River Valley in Montana threatened by Poor mining, logging, and grazing practices Water and air pollution Unsustainable commercial and residential development Community meetings led to Weed-pulling parties Nesting structures for waterfowl Developed sustainable grazing systems

99 What Can You Do? Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity Fig. 10-28, p. 247

100 Three Big Ideas 1.The economic values of the important ecological services provided by the world’s ecosystems are far greater than the value of the raw materials obtained from those systems. 2.We can manage forests, grasslands, parks, and nature preserves more effectively by protecting more land, preventing over-use of these areas, and using renewable resources provided by them no faster than such resources can be replenished by natural processes.

101 Three Big Ideas 3.We can sustain terrestrial biodiversity by protecting severely threatened areas, protecting remaining undisturbed areas, restoring damaged ecosystems, and sharing with other species much of the land we dominate.

102 Watch APES in a Box: Environmental Law (take notes)

103 Kyoto Protocol: What Can Be Done? Working alone what are two things you can do as individuals to lower greenhouse gas emissions Generate a short list as a group of 2-3 As a group what are two things society can do to help lower greenhouse gas emissions

104 A Plan to Slow Global Warming A global problem demands a global response Kyoto Protocol – an international attempt to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels 156 countries involved in the initial writing Agreement went into force Feb. 2005 The United States did NOT join the final group Bush Administration argues that 1.“the United States [was] facing an economic downturn and an energy shortage. 2.“in order to reduce greenhouses gases (especially carbon dioxide) without "harming the economy and hurting American workers", as he puts it, the United States would need to use much more natural gas - and it does not have the means to do this.” *source: bbc news ( Updated March 2001

105 Global Warming- Its not new!

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