Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Groups and Organizations. Social Group Two or more people who identify and interact with one another Category – a cluster of people who share."— Presentation transcript:
Social Group Two or more people who identify and interact with one another Category – a cluster of people who share a social trait such as age, sex, or race.
Group Think Social pressure within a group for individuals to conform to group norms and abandon individual and critical thinking People will compromise judgment to avoid being difficult –Solomon Asch’s experiment
Types of Groups Primary Group – a small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships Secondary group – large and impersonal social groups devoted to some specific interest or activity Ingroup – social group commanding a members esteem and loyalty Outgroup – social group toward which one feels competition or opposition Reference group – social group that serves as a point of reference for people making evaluations or decisions
Group Size Dyad- social group with 2 members Triad- social group with 3 members Coalition- small social group Network- a web of social ties
Formal Organizations Large, secondary groups that are organized to achieve goals efficiently Bureaucracy- a form of organization based on explicit rules, with a clear, impersonal, and hierarchical authority structure
Types of Formal Organizations Utilitarian – primary motive is income Normative – not for income but to pursue some worthwhile goal Coercive – involuntary
Types of Leadership Instrumental Leadership – group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks Expressive Leadership – group leadership that focuses on collective well-being
Leadership Styles Authoritarian leadership- takes charge of decision making and demands compliance Democratic leadership – include everyone in decision making Laissez-faire leadership – allows group to function more or less on its own
Weber’s Analysis of Bureaucracy Complex division of labor (specialization) Hierarchy of authority Explicit rules Rewards on the basis of performance Impersonality Extensive written records
Negative Consequences Trained incapacity/ indifference Goal displacement Rule of the many by the few (oligarchy) Invisible women (glass ceiling)
Corporation A group that, through the legal process of incorporation, has been given the status of a separate and real social entity
Organizational Culture Classical theory – workers are motivated almost entirely by economic rewards Human relations approach – emphasizes the role of people, communication, and participation within a bureaucracy
McDonaldization Efficiency Calculability Uniformity and predictability Control through automation
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