Presentation on theme: "Communication and Culture"— Presentation transcript:
1Communication and Culture Chapter 5Communication andCulture
2Chapter OutcomesDefine and explain culture and its impact on your communicationDelineate seven ways that cultural variables affect communicationDescribe the communicative power of group affiliations
3Chapter Outcomes (cont.) Explain key barriers to competent intercultural communicationDemonstrate behaviors that contribute to intercultural competence
4Understanding Culture A learned system of thought and behavior that belongs to and typifies a relatively large group of peopleThe composite of their shared beliefs, values, and practices
5Understanding Culture (cont.) Culture is learned through communication with others.Your personal worldview is the framework through which you interpret the world and the people in it.Culture affects communication.Main bullet 2: added period. —CE
6Understanding Culture (cont.) Intercultural communication matters.Communication between people from different cultures who have different worldviewsNecessary in our diverse, mobile societyMediated interactions and diverse organizations provide regular exposure to people from other cultures.Main bullet: added period. —CE
7Communication and Cultural Variations Seven cultural variations play out along a continuum and are not absolute.High-context cultures use contextual cues to both interpret meaning and send subtle messages.Cues: time, place, relationship, situation
8Communication and Cultural Variations (cont.) Low-context cultures use direct language and rely less on situational factors.Examples: United States, Canada, northern EuropeCollectivistic cultures perceive selves primarily as members of a group.Examples: Arab and Latin American cultures, China, Japan
9Communication and Cultural Variations (cont.) Individualistic cultures value individuality, communicate autonomy and privacy, and downplay emotions.Examples: United States, Great Britain, Australia, GermanyHigh uncertainty avoidance cultures adapt behavior to avoid risk and use formal rules to communicate.Examples: Portugal, Greece, Peru, Japan
10Communication and Cultural Variations (cont.) Low uncertainty avoidance cultures have a higher tolerance for risk and ambiguity and use fewer formal rules to communicate.Examples: Sweden, Denmark, Ireland, United States
11Communication and Cultural Variations (cont.) Masculine cultures place value on assertiveness, achievement, ambition, and competitiveness.Examples: Mexico, Japan, ItalyFeminine cultures value nurturance, relationships, and quality of life.Examples: Sweden, Norway
12Communication and Cultural Variations (cont.) Power distance is the way cultures accept the division of power.High power distance: people with less power accept lower position as basic fact of life.Low power distance: people tolerate less difference in power between people; they communicate with less anxiety with those higher in status.
13Communication and Cultural Variations (cont.) Time orientation: the way that cultures communicate about and with timeMonochronistic cultures are time- conscious; include United States, Great BritainPolychronistic cultures have a more fluid approach to time; include Latin America, Asia
14Communication and Cultural Variations (cont.) In monochronistic cultures, time is a valuable resource that is not to be wasted. Polychronistic cultures have a more fluid approach to time and deal with various projects and people simultaneously.
15Communication and Cultural Variations (cont.) Value of emotional expressionCollectivistic cultures may use hyperbole (vivid, colorful language with great emotional intensity).Individualistic cultures tend toward understatement (euphemisms) to downplay emotional intensity.
16Understanding Group Affiliations Co-cultural communicationMembers share some of the general culture’s system of thought and behavior but have distinct unifying characteristics.Includes race, gender, sexual orientation, religionIncludes generations
17Understanding Group Affiliations (cont.) Co-cultures within a larger culture
18Understanding Group Affiliations (cont.) Social identity theory includesPersonal identitySocial identity from your group membershipsIngroups and outgroupsIntergroup communicationHow communication occurs within and between groups and affects relationshipsGroup identification and communication shift depending on which group membership is made salient at a given moment.
19Intercultural Communication Challenges AnxietyEthnocentrismBelief in the superiority of your own culture or group; viewing other cultures through your own lens
20Intercultural Communication Challenges (cont.) DiscriminationStems from ethnocentrismBehavior toward person or group based solely on their membership in a particular group, class, or categoryAttitudes about superiority of one culture lead to rules and behaviors that favor that group and harm another group.
21Improving Intercultural Communication Changing thinking (cognition)Changing feelings (affect)Changing behaviorBeing mindful (intercultural sensitivity)Desiring to learn about other cultures
22Improving Intercultural Communication (cont.) Overcoming intergroup biasesIntergroup contact theory: interaction between members of different social groups generates a possibility for more positive attitudes.Refraining frombehavioral affirmationand confirmation
23Improving Intercultural Communication (cont.) Accommodating appropriatelyConvergence involves shifting language or nonverbal behaviors toward each other’s way of communicating.Avoid overaccommodation, or going too far in making changes based on stereotypes about another group.
24Practice Your Skills Listen effectively. Think before you speak or act.Be empathic.Do the right thing.