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The Permutation Fugue and Johann Sebastian Bach's Compositional Development Matthias Röder Harvard University Matthias Röder |

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Presentation on theme: "The Permutation Fugue and Johann Sebastian Bach's Compositional Development Matthias Röder Harvard University Matthias Röder |"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Permutation Fugue and Johann Sebastian Bach's Compositional Development Matthias Röder Harvard University Matthias Röder | The 14th Biennial International Conference on Baroque Music Queens University Belfast, July 1, 2010

2 Overview 1.The Permutation Fugue 2.Compositional Challenges 3.Permutation Fugues in the Early Cantatas 4.Implications for Chronology and Authenticity? Matthias Röder |

3 The Permutation Fugue The Five Principles 1 1.Voices must enter successively 2.Voice entries alternating on tonic and dominant 3.Fixed sequence of subjects 4.Little or no free counterpoints 5.Multiple / invertible counterpoint TDTDTDTDT B T A S { ….. Fugue 1 Walker1989 Matthias Röder |

4 TDTDTDTDT B T A S { Fugue Compositional Challenges 1.Harmonic Diversity 2.Large-Scale Development 3.Integration …?…? How does Bach address these challenges in the permutation fugues of his early cantatas? Central Question Matthias Röder |

5 BWVCantata TitlePerformance Date or Chronology Movement or Section Title 71Der Herr ist mein KönigFebruary 4, 1708Muß täglich von neuem Dein Alter sei wie deine Jugend 196Der Herr denket an unsEarly, possibly in Mühlhausen on stylistic grounds 1 Er segnet das Haus Israel 150Nach dir, Herr, verlanget mich Early, but authenticity and chronology debated 2 Denn er wird meinen Fuß 208Was mir behagt, ist nur die muntre Jagd! February 27, 1713Lebe, Sonne dieser Erden 182Himmelskönig sei willkommen March 25, 1714Himmelskönig sei willkommen So lasset uns gehen in Salem der Freuden 21Ich hatte viel Bekümmernis June 17, 1714 (or earlier?) Daß er meines Angesichtes Lob und Ehre und Preis und Gewalt 63Christen, ätzet diesen TagDecember 15, 1714Höchster schau in Gnaden an Permutation Fugues in Bachs Early Cantatas 1 Dürr Küster 1996 for a differing opinion. 2 Schering 1913 and Rifkin See also Glöckner 1988 and Dürr Basic use Experimen- tation Full inte- gration Matthias Röder |

6 Muß täglich von neuem (BWV 71) Analytical Remarks Picture book permutation fugue. Standard employment of the technique Instruments fill-in when voices drop out. Later on, instruments double voice entries creating an impressive increase in sound Fugue is contained in a multi-part movement, but thematically not connected to surrounding sections B T A S vc vla v II v I tr * Permutation scheme based on Neumann 1950 Matthias Röder |

7 Dein Alter sei wie deine Jugend (BWV 71) B T A S { Analytical Remarks First step towards incorporation of permutation subjects into the larger movement context Fourth subject is fixed only rhythmically. Pitch content is variable Used in combination with variations of the third fugue subject for the transition between the fugue expositions and for the ending * Permutation scheme based on Neumann 1950 Matthias Röder |

8 Combination and Variation of Fugue Subjects for Transition Matthias Röder | Source: NBA I/32.1

9 Er segnet das Haus Israel (BWV 196) Analytical Remarks Further refinement of instrumentation strategies as well as exploration of harmonic shifts Irregularities in permutation scheme result from Bachs idea to double voice entries with instruments in corresponding range Real answer in Comes results in harmonic shift to subdominant B T A S vc vla v II v I * Permutation scheme based on Neumann 1950 Matthias Röder |

10 Real Answer in Comes Results in Harmonic Shift to Subdominant SubdominantTonic Matthias Röder |

11 Denn er wird meinen Fuß (BWV 150) Combination of permutation fugue with non-fugal violin solo. First step towards fusion of permutation principle with other techniques Violin transition linking the fugue directly to preceding section. There is however, no thematic connection Dux and Comes are overlapping Analytical Remarks B T A S bsn v II v I * Permutation scheme based on Neumann 1950 Matthias Röder |

12 Summary Pre-Weimar Fugues All fugues have at least one complete exposition If fugues are integrated into larger movements, there is no thematic connection Four Compositional Strategies 1.Insertion of instrumental voices to fill gaps between vocal expositions 2.Instrumental doubling of voice parts to vary texture and increase sound 3.Increase harmonic diversity by employing the wrong Comes 4.Inclusion of non-fugal material Matthias Röder |

13 Lebe, Sonne dieser Erden (BWV 208) Analytical Remarks First vocal exposition is not complete in order to pace movement Incorporates Permutation Fugue into Da-Capo Form Non-permutation-fugue sections contain fugue subjects as well, binding the fugue more closely into the movement at large B T A S Bsn + vc v II v I b.c. vla * Permutation scheme based on Neumann 1950 Matthias Röder |

14 Permutation Fugue Subject in Instrumental Interlude and B-Section Matthias Röder | Source: NBA I/35

15 Himmelskönig sei willkommen (BWV 182) Da-Capo movement that contains a variety of fugal and canonic techniques Permutation fugue is basis of entire movement, providing structurally important material For example: uses permutation subject to signify arrival of new key in B-section of Da-Capo form Analytical Remarks B T A S vla I v I vla II vc fl * Permutation scheme based on Neumann 1950 Matthias Röder |

16 Uses permutation subject to signify arrival of new key in B-section of da-capo form Matthias Röder | Source: NBA I/8.2

17 So lasset uns gehen in Salem der Freuden (BWV 182) Seamless integration of permutation fugue into Da-Capo movement. First instance in which permutation fugue subject is used for Ritornello Furthermore: harmonic shift to subdominant widens harmonic space before launching into closing group. Analytical Remarks B T A S vla I, II, vc v I fl S * Permutation scheme based on Neumann 1950 Matthias Röder |

18 Lob und Ehre und Preis und Gewalt (BWV 21) Combines the permutation principle with free fugal sections and a concertizing section between the solo, tutti, as well as instrumental choirs Analytical Remarks B T A S bsn v II v I vla * Permutation scheme based on Neumann 1950 Matthias Röder |

19 Höchster schau in Gnaden an (BWV 63) Similarity to BWV 150: 1.Connection to preceding section 2.Overlapping of voice entries Matthias Röder |

20 Overlapping of Dux and Comes trp Dux Comes Matthias Röder | Source: NBA I/2

21 Pre-Weimar All fugues have at least one complete exposition Seldom integrated into larger context If so, there is no thematic connection Experimentation with use of free counterpoint within permutation fugue Weimar First fugue exposition is often cut off Always connected to larger context Close thematic connection between sections Free counterpoint used to connect permutation fugue with preceding or following section Comparison Matthias Röder |

22 Some Implications? Chronology of BWV 196 –Full exposition, use of instrumentation, harmonic experimentation all point to pre-Weimar practise Authenticity of BWV 150 –Overlapping of Dux and Comes (also in Höchster schau in Gnaden an) –Transition from free section to fugue (also in Daß er meines Angesichtes and Höchster schau in Gnaden an) Chronology of BWV 150 –High degree of experimentation in permutation fugue excludes earliest composition –Lack of thematic integration does not point towards Weimar period, however Matthias Röder |

23 References Carl Dahlhaus, Zur Geschichte der Permutationsfuge, Bach-Jahrbuch 46 (1959): 95–110. Alfred Dürr, Studien über die frühen Kantaten Johann Sebastian Bachs, 2nd ed. (Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1977). Andreas Glöckner, Zur Echtheit und Datierung der Kantate BWV 150 'Nach dir, Herr, verlanget mich, Bach- Jahrbuch 74 (1988): 195–203. Konrad Küster, Eine frühe Bach-Kantate und ihr Kontext, Musik und Kirche 66 (1996): 84–96. Matthias Röder | Slides are available from Werner Neumann, J. S. Bachs Chorfuge. Ein Beitrag zur Kompositionstechnik Bachs, 2nd ed., Bach-Studien 3 (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1950). Joshua Rifkin, Bachs erste Kantate, (presented at the Bach Colloquium, Cambridge, Mass, 2005). Paul Walker, Die Entstehung der Permutationsfuge, Bach-Jahrbuch 75 (1989): 21–41. Arnold Schering, Die Kantate Nr. 150 "Nach dir, Herr, verlanget mich", Bach-Jahrbuch (1913): 39–52. NBA = Neue Bach-Ausgabe (Kassel: Bärenreiter) Matthias Röder |


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