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MADISON’S CURRENT WEATHER Madison Weather at 1000 AM CDT 27 JUN 2002 Updated twice an hour at :05 and :25 Temperature: 72F ( 22C) Dewpoint: 59F ( 15C) Relative Humidity: 64% Winds from the NW (330 degs) at 10 mph. Pressure: 1011.3 millibars. Altimeter:29.88 inches of mercury. The prevailing visibility was 10 miles.

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 2

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3 CURRENT VISIBLE

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 4 Current Surface Weather Map with Isobars (“iso” = equal & “bar” = weight), Fronts and Radar

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 5 Current Surface Winds with Streamlines & Isotachs (“iso” = equal & “tach” = speed) H L L H H L L

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 6 Yesterday’s High Temperatures ( o F) – (1961-90) Average High Temperatures

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 7 Current Temperatures ( ° F) & Isotherms (“iso” = equal +”therm” = temperature)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 8 Current Temperatures ( o F) – 24 Hrs Ago

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 9 CURRENT IR

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 10 Current Dewpoints ( o F)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 11 Current UVI Forecast

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 12 Tomorrow AM Forecast Map

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 13 ANNOUCEMENTS u Homework #1 is graded & returned today – –See Ans. Key at http://www.aos.wisc.edu/~hopkins/homework u Homework #2 is due Wed. u 1 st Hour Exam is scheduled for Wed. –See Study sheet at http://www.aos.wisc.edu/~hopkins/exams

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 14 ATM OCN 100 - Summer 2001 LECTURE 7 ATMOSPHERIC ENERGETICS: RADIATION (con’t.) u A. Introduction u B. Radiant Energy - Fundamentals

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 15 Electromagnetic Radiation Fundamentals

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 16 Electromagnetic Radiation Emission/Absorption as a function of Temperature Total radiation emitted/absorbed T 4 Peak emission wavelength 1/T

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 17 ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION FUNDAMENTALS (con’t.) u Inverse Square Relationship –Intensity of incident radiation varies inversely with square of distance from radiation source;

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 18 ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION FUNDAMENTALS (con’t.) u Inverse Square Relationship –Intensity of incident radiation varies inversely with square of distance from radiation source;

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 19 INVERSE SQUARE LAW (con’t.)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 20 INVERSE SQUARE LAW (con’t.) Earth

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 21 ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION FUNDAMENTALS (con’t.) u Zenith Angle Relationship –Intensity of incoming radiation is: F greatest for vertically oriented rays; F least for rays that parallel horizontal surface. –Intensity of incoming radiation is proportional to cosine of incident angle (defined as zenith angle)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 22 COSINE ANGLE RELATIONSHIP (con’t.) Sun at zenith Sun on horizon

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 23 Solar Altitude Angles at Different Latitudes Fig. 2.6 Moran and Morgan (1997)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 24 C. THE EARTH, THE SUN and THE RADIATION LINK u The Sun & Solar radiation –A star with surface temperature 6000 K; –Peak radiation m.

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 25 Our Sun [Space Environment Center]

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 26 Our Sun last Night [NOAA Space Environment Center] H-Alpha Image

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 27 Our Sun from Yesterday [Space Environment Center] H-Alpha Image Helium Image

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 28 Sunspot Numbers Fig 20.5 Moran & Morgan (1997)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 29 Extra-atmospheric Solar Radiation See Fig 2.3, Moran & Morgan (1997)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 30 C. THE EARTH, THE SUN & THE RADIATION LINK (con’t.) u Receipt of solar radiation by Earth- atmosphere system –Solar Constant Incoming solar radiation received on surface that is: F Perpendicular to sun’s rays F Above atmosphere; F at mean earth-sun distance. –Currently accepted value: 2 cal/cm 2 /min = 1370 Watt/m 2.

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 31 INVERSE SQUARE LAW (con’t.) Earth

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 32 C. THE EARTH, THE SUN & THE RADIATION LINK (con’t.) u Our place in the Sun -- Annual & diurnal motions of Earth –Solstices & equinoxes –Local noon & sunrise/sunset

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 33 Earth’s Orbit of Sun – The Cause of the Seasons See Fig. 2.10 Moran & Morgan (1997)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 34 Earth’s Orbit of Sun – The Cause of the Seasons See Fig. 2.10 Moran & Morgan (1997)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 35 DAYLIGHT-NIGHT (23 JUN)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 36 DAYLIGHT-NIGHT (21 SEP)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 37 DAYLIGHT-NIGHT (22 DEC)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 38 Latitudinal Dependency

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 39 Solar Altitude Angles at Different Latitudes Fig. 2.6 Moran and Morgan (1997)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 40 Our Tilted Earth

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 41 Sun Paths for Mid Latitudes Fig. 2.14 Moran and Morgan (1997)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 42 Diurnal Variation in Solar Altitude Angle at Madison

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 43 C. THE EARTH, THE SUN & THE RADIATION LINK (con’t.) u Disposition of solar radiation in Earth- atmosphere system –Reflected –Scattered –Absorbed –Transmitted u Albedo where... where...

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 44 ALBEDO u The reflectivity of a surface: u Albedo of surfaces: u Implications

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 45 C. THE EARTH, THE SUN & THE RADIATION LINK (con’t.) u Terrestrial radiation –Emitted from earth-atmosphere system; –Radiating temperature –Peak radiation region m.

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 46 Terrestrial or Long Wave Radiation Emitted at 300 K See Fig 2.4, Moran & Morgan (1997)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 47 Consequences u If more input than loss –Then Radiative heating u If more loss than input –Then Radiative cooling

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 48 ATM OCN 100 - Summer 2002 LECTURE 8 ATMOSPHERIC ENERGETICS: RADIATION & ENERGY BUDGETS u A. INTRODUCTION: – How does Planet Earth respond to solar heating? F Why does temperature vary spatially? F How do the diurnal and annual temperature cycles develop? – How does Planet Earth maintain a habitable environment?

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 49 Tropical Storm Keith

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 50

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51 B. ENERGY (HEAT) BUDGETS u Energy budget philosophy INPUT = OUTPUT + STORAGE INPUT = OUTPUT + STORAGE u Planetary annual energy budget – Short wave radiation components – Long wave radiation components – Assume INPUT = OUTPUT for entire planet & over year (since)...

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 52 ANNUAL GLOBAL AVERAGE TEMPERATURE See Fig. 19.9 Moran & Morgan (1997)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 53 Planetary Radiative Energy Budget From Geog. 101 UW-Stevens Point

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 54 Background - The Earth, The Sun & The Radiation Link u INPUT -- Solar Radiation u OUTPUT -- Terrestrial Radiation

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 55 Background - The Earth, The Sun & The Radiation Link u INPUT -- Solar Radiation –From Sun radiating at temperature 6000 K; –Peak radiation m; –Solar Constant 2 cal/cm 2 /min or 1370 W/m 2

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 56 Extra-atmospheric Solar Radiation See Fig 2.3, Moran & Morgan (1997)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 57 Background - The Earth, The Sun & The Radiation Link u OUTPUT -- Terrestrial radiation –Emitted from earth-atmosphere system; –Radiating temperature –Peak radiation region m.

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 58 Terrestrial or Long Wave Radiation Emitted at 300 K See Fig 2.4, Moran & Morgan (1997)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 59 Annual Average Planetary Energy Budget Fig. 4.1 Moran & Morgan (1997)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 60 Short-wave radiation components of the Annual Average Planetary Energy Budget Fig. 4.1 Moran & Morgan (1997)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 61 PLANETARY ENERGY BUDGETS Short Wave Components u Disposition of solar radiation in Earth- atmosphere system –Reflected –Scattered –Absorbed –Transmitted u Albedo

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 62 PLANETARY ENERGY BUDGETS Short Wave Components u Disposition of solar radiation in Earth-atmosphere system –Reflected –Scattered –Absorbed –Transmitted

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 63 ALBEDO u The reflectivity of a surface: u Albedo of surfaces: u Implications

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 64 Short-wave radiation components of the Annual Average Planetary Energy Budget Fig. 4.1 Moran & Morgan (1997)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 65 PLANETARY ENERGY BUDGETS Short Wave Components u Disposition of solar radiation in Earth- atmosphere system – Reflected – Scattered – Absorbed – Transmitted u Implications Only 70% of available solar radiation used by earth-atmosphere-ocean system!

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 66 C. THE EARTH, THE SUN & THE RADIATION LINK (con’t.) u Terrestrial radiation –Emitted from earth-atmosphere system

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 67 Long-wave radiation components of the Annual Average Planetary Energy Budget Fig. 4.1 Moran & Morgan (1997)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 68 PLANETARY ENERGY BUDGETS Long Wave Components u Disposition of long radiation in Earth-atmosphere system – Emitted – Absorbed – Transmitted

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 69 PLANETARY ENERGY BUDGETS Long Wave Components (con’t.) u Atmospheric or “Greenhouse” Effect –Background –“Greenhouse Gases” [H 2 O, CO 2, CH 4 ]

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 70 Selective Absorption of radiation by atmospheric constituents Fig. 2.24 Moran & Morgan (1997)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 71 CURRENT VISIBLE

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 72 CURRENT IR

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 73 PLANETARY ENERGY BUDGETS Long Wave Components (con’t.) u Atmospheric or “Greenhouse” Effect –Process u Implications

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 74 Long-wave radiation components of the Annual Average Planetary Energy Budget Fig. 4.1 Moran & Morgan (1997)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 75 Annual Average Planetary Energy Budget Fig. 4.1 Moran & Morgan (1997)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 76 PLANETARY ENERGY BUDGETS Non-Radiative Components u Disposition of non-radiative fluxes in Earth-atmosphere system u Types of non-radiative fluxes – Sensible heat transport – Latent Heat transport u Implications Our planet is habitable!

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 77 Relative magnitudes of energy flow components from earth’s surface Fig. 4.6 Moran & Morgan (1997)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 78 PLANETARY ENERGY BUDGETS (con’t.) u ANNUAL AVERAGE Input = Output Input = Output Absorbed solar = Emitted terrestrial Absorbed solar = Emitted terrestrial u LATITUDINAL DISTRIBUTION – Input & Output Curves – Energy surplus & deficit regions – Meridional energy transport in: F Atmosphere (78% in NH, 92% in SH at 35°) – Air Mass Exchange – Storms F Oceans (22% in NH, 8% in SH at 35°)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 79 Annual Average Radiational Energy Budget as a function of latitude Fig. 4.7 Moran & Morgan (1997)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 80 Atmospheric Circulation

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 81 OCEAN CURRENTS

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 82 Example of Satellite-Based Radiometers Sea Surface Temperatures from SSEC Holy Cross Trondheim

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 83

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84 ENERGY BUDGETS (con’t.) u LOCAL ENERGY BUDGETS u THE FORCING (Energy Gain) –Sunlight & Downward IR u THE RESPONSE – Emitted Long Wave Radiation – Temperature & Temperature Variations

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 85 ENERGY BUDGETS (con’t.) u LOCAL ENERGY BUDGETS u THE FORCING (Energy Gain) – Radiative Controls – Air Mass Controls where…

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 86 ENERGY BUDGETS (con’t.) u THE FORCING (Energy Gain) –Radiative Controls F Latitude F Clouds F Albedo – Air Mass Controls F Warm Air Advection & Cold Air Advection

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 87 Effect of Latitude New York City Miami

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 88

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89 Effect of Cloud Cover Los Angeles San Francisco

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 90

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91 ENERGY BUDGETS (con’t.) u THE RESPONSE – Temperature & Temperature Variations – Features of local energy budgets – Annual F Summer maximum temperature F Winter minimum temperature – Diurnal F Afternoon maximum temperature F Pre-dawn minimum temperature

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 92 ENERGY BUDGETS (con’t.) u THE FORCING (Energy Gain) – Radiative Controls F Latitude F Clouds F Albedo – Air Mass Controls F Warm Air Advection & Cold Air Advection

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 93 Examples of (A) Cold Air Advection & (B) Warm Air Advection Fig. 4.11 Moran & Morgan (1997)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 94 Surface Weather Map from Today with Isobars & Fronts

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 95 Surface Weather Map from Today with Isobars & Fronts

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 96 Current Temperatures ( o F) – 24 Hrs Ago

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 97 ENERGY BUDGETS (con’t.) u SURFACE FACTORS TO CONSIDER in the Thermal Response – Albedo (reflectivity) – Conductivity – Surface Moisture – Specific Heat Quantity of heat required to change temperature of a unit mass of substance by 1 Celsius degree.

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 98 Distinguishing Sensible & Latent Heats See Fig 4.3 Moran & Morgan (1997)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 99 Thermal Conductivity Example: Change in Snow Cover See Figure 3.6, Moran & Morgan (1997)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 100 TEMPERATURE RESPONSE for substances with differing specific heats See Table 3.2, Moran & Morgan (1997)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 101 Effect of Large Water Bodies Los Angeles Dallas

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 102

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103 Example of Satellite-Based Radiometers Sea Surface Temperatures from SSEC

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 104

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107 ENERGY BUDGETS (con’t) u Local energy budgets u Features of local energy budgets – Annual F Summer maximum temperature F Winter minimum temperature – Diurnal F Afternoon maximum temperature F Pre-dawn minimum temperature

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 108

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109 Daily Heating

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 110 January Temperatures - Madison, WI (1981-90)

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ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 111 July Temperatures - Madison, WI (1981-90)

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